DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT - GAINESVILLE , FLORIDA
Planning Division, Department of Community Development
Prepared by the City of Gainesville under Contract with the Florida
Development Commission. The preparation of this report was financed
in part through an urban planning grant from the Department of Housing
and Urban Development, under the provisions of Section 701 of the
Housing Act of 1954, as amended.
CITYCOMMI S SI O N
Dr. Walter Murphree, Mayor-Commissioner
Courtland Coll ier
Perry C. McGsiff, Jr.
Ted Will iams
Dr. Clayton Curtis, Chairman
Dr. Clark Hodge
B . Harold Farmer
DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
Norman J. Bowman, Director
Audrey Wil lingham, Secretary
Richard Kilby Assistant Director
David E. Boyd Planner II*
Thomas Greenwood Planner I
William Neron Planner I
V. Miles Patterson Draftsman
Jay Badger Draftsman*
Louie Wilson Planning Aide
Mary Jo Boggs Clerk Typist
* Former Employee, no longer on Planning Division Staff.
LOCAL PLANNING AGENCY:
SOURCE OF COPIES:
HUD PROJECT NUMBER:
NUMBER OF PAGES:
Planning Division, Department of Community
Development, Gainesville, Florida
Existing Commercial land Use
Prel iminary Commercial Land Use Plan
Gainesville City Plan Board
Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and
Technical Information, Washington, D.C.
Department of Community Development,
Municipal Building, Gainesville Florida 32601
HUD Regional Office Library, Region III,
645 Peachtree Seventh Building,
Atlanta, Georgia 30323
7 (of 12)
Review of population and economic growth
trends and projections to 1980. Market analysis
delineating the trade area and projecting com-
mercial dollar sales and commercial land use needs
for the forthcoming decade. Analysis of existing
commercial land use and commercial zoning. Anal-
ysis of Downtown's problems and recommendations
for same. Discussion of strip commercial develop-
ment verses planned shopping centers. Goals and
principles for future commercial development.
Preliminary commercial land use planning with
specific discussions and illustrations for improving
the socio-economic welfare of several commercial
districts and planned shopping centers in the
Gainesville Urban Area. The proposed Commercial
Land Use Plan and a summary of recommendations
• • •
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT „ iii
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS t . viii
Major Assumptions 2
URBAN AREA GROWTH 3
Dwelling Unit Construction 3
Economic Base 4
MARKET ANALYSIS 6
Trade Area , 6
Urban Area Income 9
Urban Area Income Distribution 10
Urban Area Retail Sales and Service Potential 10
The 1975 and 1980 Markets 11
EXISTING COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 16
Analysis of Present Commercial Land Use and Zoning ... .16
Downtown Gainesville 20
Downtown Traffic Problems 21
Off-street Parking Facilities 23
Semi-Mall and Pedestrian Mall Beautification 23
Parking Mall 25
Taxable Importance of Downtown 28
Strip Commercial Development 31
Shopping Centers 36
A choice of Shopping Center Patterns 38
Location Tendencies of Existing Shopping Centers . . . .40
Recent Trend for Commercial Location 40
by Types of Stores
GOALS AND PRINCIPLES FOR COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT . . .42
THE PRELIMINARY COMMERCIAL LAND USE PLAN . .47
Conservation and Rehabilitation of Existing Strip 47
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Central B usiness District 48
Unplanned Commercial Districts 53
Planned Shopping Centers 88
New Shopping Center Justification
Through a Market Analysis 88
Time Limit on Site Plan Approval 89
Off-Street Parking and Landscaping 89
Market Analysis for Other Commercial Use Groups 89
Existing Planned Shopping Centers 90
The Proposed Commercial Land Use Plan - A
Summary of Recommendations 104
Strip Commercial Areas 104
Shopping Centers 105
Shopping Centers Needed by 1980 105
Additional Shopping Centers After 1980 . . . .110
LIST OF TABLES
1. Out of Town Shopping by Gainesville Residents 7
2. Average Income Estimates and Projections 9
3. 1967 Urban Area Household and Group Quarters 10
4. 1967 Commercial Market Analysis 12
5. 1975 Commercial Projections 14
6. 1980 Commercial Projections 15
7. Existing Commercial Zoning and Land Use 17
8. Non-Commercial Zoning 17
(which allows Commercial)
9. Commercial Land Use 33
10o Factors Favoring Planned Shopping Centers 34
Over Strip and Scattered Commercial Uses
1 1 • Shopping Centers - Generalized 36
12. Shopping Center Standards 92
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
1. Alachua County, Gainesville Urban Area, xi
and City of Gainesville
2. Dwelling Unit Construction 5
3. Gainesville Trade Area 8
4. Existing Commercial Land Use 18
5. Zoning Permitting Commercial Uses 19
6. Downtown Parking Loop 22
7. Sketch of Semi - Mall 24
8. Sketch of Pedestrian Mall 26
9. Sketch of Parking Mall 27
10. Downtown Gainesville 29
1 1 . Proposed CBD Improvement Plan 30
12. Strip Commercial 32
13- A Choice of Shopping Center Patterns 39
14. Unplanned Commercial Districts 54
15. Planned Shopping Centers 91
16. Pre I imi nary Commercial Land Use Plan Ill
Growth in commercial land use in the Gainesville Urban Area has followed
a familiar pattern common to many cities. As an agricultural trading center for
a fairly wide region, the commercial land use pattern which evolved was char-
acterized by a tightly developed central core area ( new generally known as the
Central Business District or CBD) where ihe farmers from outlying areas could
come into town and shop for a variety of goods in a relatively small area. The
hub of this core area was the County Courlhouse, which served as ihe focal
point for the area.
The coming of the automobile led to the now familiar "strip" commercial
pattern radiating outward from the CBD along the major traffic arteries, as
merchants tried to capture some of the available dollars before they reached
"downtown". This trend was accentuated by the growth of commercial activities
on major streets adjoining and eventually filling-in along the major streets
between the CBD and the University of Florida campus.
The automobile also gave rise to another post-war phenomenon, the shopping
center. However, unlike many communities wherein the shopping center devel-
oped far out into, the suburbs in the center of new residential growth, the first
shopping centers in Gainesville were located just outside the CBD (such as the
Gainesville Shopping Center and the Murphrys Center) . More recently new
centers have ^ocated farther out from the center, but frequently with overlapping
service areas with existing commercial areas. Another characteristic of the
recent commercial growth has been a proliferation of the strip developments,
especially food and service establishments catering in large part to today's mobile ,
Special emphasis and recommendations included in this study are made for
the development and redevelopment of existing commercial problem areas as
well as standards and principles to guide future commercial growth. The graphical
product of this study and its recommendations is known as the Preliminary Commercial
Land Use Plan. This plan will designate anticipated potential "best areas" for
future commercial development based upon the analysis and conclusions presented
within this and previous studies.
Note should be taken of the following terms of refsrence in this study.
Central Business District: is that area containing the retail core as well as the
financial and administrative centers of the region. For the purposes of this
study, it is that area shown in Illustration 10 on page 29 .
Effective Buying Income: is gross income minus taxes.
Gross Leaseable Area: is the total floor area designed for tenant occupancy
and exclusive use, expressed in square feet and measured from the centerline
of joint partitions and from outside wall faces - abbreviated GLA.
Shopping Center: is a group of commercial establ ishments, planned, developed,
and managed as a unit related in location, size, and type of shops to the trade
area that the unit serves. It provides on-sito parking in definite relationship
to the types and sizes of stores.
Shopping Districts: are miscellaneous collections of individual stores on
separate parcels of land strung along thoroughfare frontages or clustered in a
contiguous area with or without incidental off-street parking.
Strip Commercial Development: consists of generally unrelated tracts of contin-
uous commercial developnent strung out along thoroughfares.
Trade Area: is that area from which is obtained the major portion of the con-
tinuing patronage necessary for steady support of the shopping area under con-
While preparing any document which deals with the future, certain con-
ditions must be assumed upon which a meaningful analysis can be based. More
specifically, for the purposes of this study, the following conditions were as-
sumed as given and that they would not change significantly during the planning
period to 1980.
1 . No world war or prolonged crises will upset the economy.
2. The Urban Area population will equal or exceed forecast growth.
3. Income levels and purchasing power will continue to increase consistently
as in the past.
4. Citizen concern for community problems will continue.
5. No major change will occur in consumer shopping habits. For example, the
relative importance of mail order retail sales will not change significantly.
URBAN AREA GROWTH
A brief summary and analysis of existing and past trends of growth in the
Urban Area is introductry in nature but can also serve as a basis for future com-
mercial land use planning. An overview of Urban Area population trends,
dwelling unit construction, and the economic base will specifically be pre-
sented in the following sections. More detailed analysis of existing and anti-
cipated Area population and economic base are found in studies recently com-
pleted by the Department of Community Development.
The amount of future commercial land use will be determined by two fac-
tors: the number of people to be served and the amount of money they have to
The Urban Area has exhibited a steady growth since the end of World War M
when returning servicemen, armed with the G. I. Bill, gave a sharp upward
impetus to enrollment at the University of Florida. In 1936 the total population
of the Urban Area was about 36,000. By 1960 it was estimated^at more than
53,000, and today it is estimated to be in excess of 82,000. Of this amount
almost 20,000 are students enrolled at the University. About 13,000 of the
1960 populatipn of 53,000 were students.^ The projections of future popula-
tion range from 1 15,000 to 120,000 by 1980. 4f The general population esti-
mates and projections as well as other characterists are set forth in the Population
Study^c and the Economic Base Study .4f
Another prime consideration of commercial land use is the intensity of devel-
opment, particularly the density of residential development. In this regard the
urban area is, generally speaking, typical of most cities with the highest den-
sities near the center and decreasing densities radiating outward. A good illus-
tration of this is the fact that the approximate density of Gainesville before the
large annexation in 1962 was 7.32 persons per square mile, but only 3.48 after-
wards.^9 There are exceptions to this general pattern such as the higher intensity
caused by the grouping of apartments around the University and smaller clusters
of higher density scattered throughout the Urban Area. Several clusters are re-
presented by the mobile home developments, particularly along Archer Road.
Dwelling Unit Construction
Dwelling unit construction serves as a good indicator of the location of future
community facility needs and commercial expansion potential. By examining
Illustration No. 2, it is apparent that the most recent growth has taken place in
* Note: Numbers to refer to reference sources which are listed in the Appendix.
the residential northwest and in the southwest near the University of Florida.
Most of the dwelling units built in the latter area are apartments. Other signi-
ficant growth has occurred in the areas where the new public housing has been
Gainesville's title as the "Universtiy City" is very appropriate because the
University of Florida provides the principle foundation for the economy of the
area. It has long provided stability to the economy, even in times when other
areas were experiencing economic difficulties. Growth of the University has
been closely tracked by overall growth in the community.
Prospects for the immediate future are for a continuation of this growth. One
projection, perhaps slightly optimistic, is for enrollment to reach 34,501 by 1980.
Previous studies in this series forecast an enrollment of 31,000 by that date.
The University is only one source of governmental employment. Others are
the Sunland Training Center with around 1, 100 employees, the Alachua County
Public School District, the City of Gainesville and Alachua County, and the
Federal Government (with postal employees, the Veterans Hospital, various re-
search programs at the University and the U. S. Department of Agriculture),, In
total, government at various levels is by far the largest employer in the area.
Other base employment is provided by the manufacturing industry, led by
the General Electric Plant at Hague and by Sperry Rand. However, less than
ten (10) percent of all resident employment is in this category.
The second largest type of employment is in services. Approximately 21
percent of all resident employment is in the general category of services, ex-
cluding education (which amounts to about 24 percent alone) and private house-
hold workers. Another 16 percent are employed in retail trade. All service em-
ployees, including education and private household workers account for 50 per-
cent of the resident employment.
Finally, agriculture and forestry continues to play an important part in the
local economy, not so much in terms of the number of people employed, which
has diminished over the years, but in terms of the value of the produce grown
and marketed. The latter has steadily grown over the years with different farm
products assuming the leading role. It is expected that the Gainesville Urban
Area will continue in its historical role as the center for this agricultural region.
* University of Florida Bureau of Business and Economic Research projection.
Without supportafive evidence to the contrary, it is assumed that the estab-
lished growth trends of the past will continue in the immediate future. Those
include an expanded growth at the University and Medical Center, a parallel
growth in service industries and in lecal government, and a proportionate increase
in the manufacturing segment. There is some evidence that a growing labor
supply, coupled with an active promotional program, will undoubtedly result in
an increase in the latter sector eventual ly. Government, especial I y education
and services are likely to continue to be the basic foundation of the economy in
the immediate years ahead.
The market analysis is undoubtedly the most critical section of a commercial
land use study. This section outlines the present and probable quantity of future
commercial land use needed. The results of the market analysis should give logical
answers to such questions as: "How much commercial floor space and land area
will be needed during the planning period;" and, "What kind of commercial acti-
vities have potential for future expansion?" The answers to these and other ques-
tions along with certain adopted goals and policies for the community will help
shape the Preliminary Commercial Land Use Plan.
The income and spending habits of university students, particularly residents
of group quarters, differs substantially from the typical urban area household.
Therefore, the estimated income of group quarters residents was deducted from
the total Urban Area income and expenditures, and later combined for the totals
used in the preliminary plan.
The commercial base of the Gainesville Urban Area is second only to the
Jacksonville Area in north central Florida. The Gainesville Urban Area pre-
sently has approximately 36 acres of gross leaseable building area in commercial
developments in shopping centers with, an additional 56 acres of commercial
building area located outside the shopping centers. This latter floor area is
located in strip and scattered areas.
Although it is impossible to precisely define within the limited resources of
this study, the Urban Area's commercial sphere of influence I ies approximate! y
in an area bounded by the communities of Ocala, Cedar Key, Mayo, Lake City,
Lawtey, Starke, Keystone Heights, and Palatka (see Illustration No.??). This
conclusion is based upon local newspaper circulation and trading areas of the
larger department stores. Up-to-date information concerning the total number
_0 o -
4) t ^5
t o °^
<J u- =
D ° >
D CD ">
o « .E
JO - D
< o O
— 1 Q_
< o cd
^ "D CO
— -= ^
u- ~ _±
° D ^
I 1 lustration 3
of persons within the trade area is non-existant because the latest census of the
areas within the regional trade area was done in 1960.
Although Gainesville presently serves a large north central Florida region,
a survey conducted by the Department of Community Development in April of
1967 showed that some Gainesville residents depend upon other commercial cen-
ters outside the Gainesville Urban Area for certain types of shopping. Table No.
1 shows this relationship.
It is seen from the table that much of the clothing, appliances, and auto-
mobiles purchased by Gainesville residents are bought outside Gainesville. In
1967 approximately 5.6 million dollars was spent outside Gainesville for the
eleven retail items listed in the table. However, the following analysis shows
that many more retail and service dollars are coming into the 'Jrban Area than
are leaving the Area.
Urban Area Income
The most basic estimate in a quantative analysis is the estimate of the income
of the study area's population. As was explained previously, separate estimates
were made for residents of households and persons living in group quarters. The
year 1967 is used as the base year, because it is the most recent year for which
reliable data is available. The average Household income estimates and pro-
jections for 1967, 1975 and 1980 were prepared in the Economic Base Study^
for the Gainesville Urban Area. The estimated and projected incomes of Uni-
versity of Florida students living in group quarters were based on data taken
from a study of University student income and expenditures conducted by a
class of marketing students under the direction of members of the University of
Florida faculty. 10
AVERAGE INCOME ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS
1967 1975 1980
Average Household Income in $7,965 $9,614 $10,287
Average Household Income for 7,360 9,111 9,891
Average County Household Income 5,597 6,771 7,245
Outside Urban Area
Average Income per Student in 1,800 2,480 2,840
Source: DCD, Economic Base Study.
Urban Area Income Distribution
The way in which an income unit (household, family, student, etc.) expends
its dollar for current consumption is affected by several factors such as the a-
mount of income, age of the income unit, geographical location of the income
unit, number of members in the income unit, social and economic trends, and
by several other factors. Income distribution estimates for Urban Area house-
holds were derived from the United States Department of Labor data for the
Southern Region. Income distribution estimates for group housing (at University
of Florida) were from the University of Florida's Student Income and Expenditure
Study 1 u which was conducted in 1967.
1967 URBAN AREA HOUSEHOLD AND GROUP QUARTERS INCOME DISTRIBUTIONS
Average Income 1967
Effective Buying Income
Clothing, Clothing Materials Services
Source: U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and Student Income and Expenditures study.
Urban Area Retail Sales and Service Potential
The percentage distribution of disposable income (income after taxes) in
the above table can further be divided into commercial and non-commercial ex-
penditures. By separating non-commercial expenditures ( using a more detailed
breakdown than shown above) such as rent and utilities from the total disposable
income distribution, it was found that the average Urban Area household spends
approximately 70 cents of its disposable dollar for retail sales and services.
St udents in group quarters spend somewhat less of their disposable dollar on retail
sales and services, spending about 59 cents of each disposable dollar for retail
sales and services .
Examination of Table 4, " 1967 Commercial Market Anal ysis" indicates that
there are six major business groups in which the various business types are found.
The first four business groups - "convenience", "service", "comparison", and
"others" are generally considered compatible with shopping center development.
"Automotive" and "miscellaneous" business groups are generally located in strip
and scattered commercial areas. The use of these criteria along with projections
of future available income for retail sales and services will provide a quantative
basis for the Preliminary Commercial Land Use Plan and recommendations.
Further examination of Table 4 indicates that the Gainesville Urban Area
is retaining approximately 128% of its total available retail sales and service
dollar (Column 7). The preceding figure of 128% means that the estimated total
amount (Sales Management estimate) of dollars spent for retail sales and services
in the Urban Area (includes sales to tourists, businessmen, and to trade area resi-
dents living outside the Urban Area) was 28 percent greater than the estimated
amount of dollars actually available for retail sales and services from Urban
The percentages in Column 7 seem logical except for the estimate for auto
dealers (154%), which seems i.igh. Table 1 on page 7 indicates that about
17.5 percent of the dollars available for auto purchases by local area residents
went to concerns outside the Gainesville Urban Area. Therefore, an extremely
large expenditure for automobiles from outside residents would have been neces-
sary to reach the 154% figure. Since many of the small towns in the trade area
do not have auto dealerships, this could well be the case though. The other per-
centages in Column 7 confirm the general belief that Gainesville Area commercial
establishments, taken as a whole, serve as a regional commercial center, although
a small percentage of Area residents still prefer shopping elsewhere for certain
The 1975 and 1980 Markets
Estimates of the amounts of income available to Urban Area businessmen in
1975 and 1980 for retail sales and services are based upon several assumptions:
1 . That Urban Area population will continue to grow steadily from an
estimated 75,500 persons in 1967 to 120,340 persons in 1980.
2. That real personal income will continue to increase during the planning
' Totol Income before Taxes $ 183,335,000
Total Income after Taxes 165,568,000
Income Ava ilable for Retail Soles and Services ■ ■ ■ ■ 114,251,000
" Estimated Urban Area In- Sales Management Esti-
come Available for Retail mate of Retail Sales &
Business Business Sales and Services House- Census of Business Esti-
Groups Types holds and Group Quarters mate of Dollars Spent for
Serv. in the Urban Area
1967 COMMERCIAL MARKET ANALYSIS
coming into the
Percent of Avail-
able Dollars Retained
in the Urban Area
~>1 ?4R 000
•J £. f t*TU f \J\J\J
Of , 7 1 ** , (AfU
J , GXX>, UUU
1 , 509, 000
Furn. & Appl .
c pox C\CY\
j , oZO , \J\A)
7 OOP C\(Y\
I, 77 Of UUU
z , 1 / z , uuu
Art Dealers, Jew-
elry Stores, Pet
Shops, etc. not
covered under oth-
Sales & Acces.
1 , 046, 000
ing Mat. , &
Comm. Rec .
Major groupings of commercial business types. The business
types found in the "convenience", "service", "comparison",
and "others" business groups are generally compatible with
and best located in planned shopping centers. "Automotive"
and "miscellaneous" business groups are incompatible with
Shopping Center Developments and usually locate in "strip"
or "scattered" commercial areas.
The major retail and service business types.
Average distribution of the Urban Area retail sales and ser-
vice dollar based upon Bureau of Labor Statistics for the
Southern Region and the University of Florida's Student Income
and Expenditure study.
Estimated dollars available from Urban Area residents for
expenditures in the various business types listed.
Sales Management's Survey of Buying Power estimates of
actual retail sales and the Census of Business estimate of
dollars spent for service in the Urban Area.
Note: Copyright 1968, Sales Management, Survey of
Buying Power; further reproduction is forbidden.
Column 5 minus column 4.
Column 5 divided by column 4.
* Planning Division estimate based upon Sales Management data.
3. That the portion of a person's effective buying income spent on
retail sales and services will continue approximately the same.
4. That the Gainesville Urban Area will strengthen its position as
the major commercial center of north-central Florida.
The projections of Urban Area retail sales and service dollars for 1975 and
1980 are based upon the assumption that the Gainesville Urban Area will continue
to serve a larger market area. That is, instead of capturing 128% of the Area's
available dollars for retail sales and services, Urban Area commercial establish-
ments will capture 133% and 135% of its^ residents' available retail and service
dollars by 1975 and 1980, respectively.
As is indicated in Table 5, the Gainesville Urban Area is expected to have
a total effective buying income (gross income minus taxes) of $236,899,000 in
1975. Of this $161,402,000 will be available from Area residents for retail
sales and services. Since the projected amount of retail sales and service dollars
to be captured in the Urban Area is $213,947,000 (based on 133% of available
retail and service dollars), approximately 52 million retail and service dollars
will be netted by the Urban Area from sources outside the Area.
The methodology stated in the preceeding paragraph holds true for the 1980
retail sales and service projections. Of the projected $300,668,000 of disposable
income for the Urban Area in 1980, $205,387,000 is expected to be locally avail-
able for retail sales and services. The Urban Area commercial establishments will
capture a total retail and service volume equal to 135% of the local available
dollars, or $277, 102,000. This indicates that by 1980 Urban Area commercial
establishments should be netting approximately $72,000,000 more than the avail-
able local retail and service dollars of Urban Area residents.
Theoretically, the Gainesville Urban Area would only require a total of 340.3
acres and 41 1 .8 acres to satisfy its 1975 and 1980 commercial land needs, res-
pectively, if all previous commercial development had efficiently used the land
which it now occupies. In reality, however, the existing land to building ratio
for all commercial development is about 6.3:1 (See Table 9 on page''') versus
the 3.0:1 ratio used in modern shopping centers. Several apparent reasons con-
tribute to the low intensity use of existing commercial land in Gainesville:
1. Approximately 77% of existing commercial land is in strip and
scattered locations, generally associated with wasteful and in-
efficient land use.
2. Many commercial establishments exist in buildings once built
for residential purposes with a lower intensity of development.
* Planning Department estimates.
1975 COMMERCIAL PROJECTIONS
Totol Income Before Taxes
... $ 264,996,000
Total Income After Taxes
Income Available for Retail Sales
Percent of Ava
Estimated Urban Area c
ble Dollars Expected Retail and Service
volume per sq.
Floor Area Expected Park-
Income Available for
to be captured
Dollars Expected to
foot of Gross
ing to Building
crease in Park-
c rea se i n Pork -
Sales and Services
be spent in Urban
needed by Ratio for Future
ing Needs by
ing & Bui Id ing
Area in 1975
Land Use by 1975
JO, O 1 U, UVJU
■ j j
Fum. & Appl .
Art Dealers, Jew
elry, Pet Shops,
etc . not covered
under other groupings
? 7ft? nnn
Sales & Acces.
ing Mat, & Farm
L~! 1AO C\(\C\
projections of income and income distribution are by the Pi
* Not Applicable
1980 COMMERCIAL PROJECTIONS
Total Income Before Taxes $ 337,684,000
Taxes - 37,016,000
Total Income After Taxes 300,668,000
Percent of Avail-
Estimated Urban Area
able Dollars Ex-
Retail and Service
volume per sq.
Floor Area Expected Park-
Income Available for
pected to be spent
Dollars Expected to
pected in Re-
foot of Gross
crease in Park-
crease in Park-
Retail Sales & Services
in Urban Area in
be spent in Urban
tail and Ser-
needed by Ratio
ing & Building
Area in 1980
Land Use by 1980
3 864 000
1 842 000
3, 119, 000
1 , 804, 000
1 674 000
Fum. & Appl .
Eating & Drinking 6. 3
Art Dealers, Jew-
elry Stores, Pet
Shops, etc. not
covered under oth-
Sales & Acces.
Mat & Farm
E quipme nt
Comm . Rec .
TOTALS 100.0 205,387,000 135 277,102,000
Note: All projections of income and income distribution are by the Planning Division.
* Not Applicable
3. The overall character of Gainesville is associated with less intense
It is expected that some of the existing 578 acres of commercial land use will
become more intensely used when replacement of existing structures becomes nec-
essary. However, projected commercial land needs for 1975 and 1980 will be
based upon anticipated increases in retail and service dollars in the Urban Area.
Columns 6-11 in Tables 5 and 6 indicate how much additional retail sales and
service dollars, gross floor area, parking area, and commercial land will be needed
by 1975 and 1980, respectively.
Preliminary to the planning stage is the examination of existing commercial
land use and commercial zoning. The following sections will give detailed des-
criptions of major problems confronting commercial grov/th and their affect upon
the community as a whole. By examining existing commercial patterns, trends,
and problems, it is hoped that realistic recommendations can be made later in
this study to implement the establishment of a healthy and attractive commercial
base in Gainesville.
Examination of Tables 7 & 8 reveal the following facts:
EXISTING COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Analysis of Present Commercial Land Use and Zoning
a. Existing commercial zoning
b. Non-commercial zoning (which allows com
Total allowing commercial
c. Existing commercial land use (developed)
The Land Use Analysis for the Gainesville Urban Area showr vhat a substantial
surplus of land exists in most of the commercial zoning categories' This is
indicated by Table 7.
EXISTING COMMERCIAL ZONING AND LAND USE
. uo acres
1 1 CIA
1 1 . 96 acres
1 1 .96 acres
i ry br
CO C A
72 o 04
L ity a\- 1
a o a.
1 O OA
iz . 90
C ity BK- 1
/ . 66
/"* ' t D D O
22 . 11
17 A OO
i /4 . yy
1 OA AO
1 Z0 . 09
OO C AO
z95 . 0b
* This total includes all uses of commercially zoned land, whether it is a
commercial use or otherwise.
Source: DCD: Land Use Analysis, January 1969.
City & MS
(which allows Commercial)
91 .29 acres
145. 13 acres
* This total includes all uses of commercially zoned land, whether it is as
commercial use or otherwise.
Source: DCD; Land Use Analysis.
The previous tables and mcp s show that the Gainesville Urban Area pre-
sently has approximately 1, 165 acres of vacant, commercially zoned land.*
Vacant non-commercially zoned land which allows commercial development
amounts to an additional 2,400 acres, or a total of 3,565 acres of vacant
land with potential for commercial development. As previously stated, there
are only 578 acres of commercial land use in the Gainesville Urban Area at
the present time .
Summary of Existing Commercial
1 . Less than 12 percent of land permitting commercial is developed
for that use.
2. More than 73 percent of all land allowing commercial development
is vacant. The 27 percent that is developed includes industrial
development, residential development and other land uses.
3. Only 25 percent of the total commercially zoned land in the Urban
Area is being utilized by commercial establishments (not including
non-commercial zoning which allows commercial uses.)
4. Approximately 63 percent of all commercially zoned land is vacant,
while 12 percent is being used for non-commercial purposes.
5. Approximately 80 percent of the non-commercial zoning which
allows commercial development is vacant.
6. About 5.5 percent of all commercially developed land is non-conforming.
Much valuable information was presented in a 1963 publication, Downtown
Gainesville., It is not a purpose of this report to analyze the downtown area in depth.
It will suffice here to point out trends in downtown development and recommend steps
that can be taken to alleviate some of Downtown's ills.
In the past twelve years such major shopping centers as the Gainesville Mall,
the Westgate shopping complex, and the Gainesville Shopping Center have devel-
oped. Several other shopping centers are presently in the planning stages. This
trend indicates that much more substantial efforts must be made and encouraged in
the direction of Downtown revital ization if it is to sustain a relevant or meaningful
position in the retail market. Downtown Gainesvil'e is presently being hurt by the
impact of shopping centers and if steps are not taken to stabilize this trend the eventual
decay, both economically and socially, of the entire Downtown cou'd ensue.
* These figures are as of January, 1969.
A beginning to Downtown rcvital ization was made with "Operation Facelift".
This program was instituted in 1964 by the Downtown Development Committee of
the Chamber of Commerce, merchants, property owners, local architects, and the
City to "clean-up, paint-up, fix-up the downtown face for the maximum physical
change at the least cost". The specific accomplishments of this program were the
refurbishing of store fronts, removal of some large overhanging signs, and the ad-
dition of planter boxes along the major Downtown streets. This program generated
widespread community interest and generally restated the belief that the Downtown
retailing component should be encouraged and preserved.
Since the completion of "Operation Facelift", the exodus of retail stores has
not lessened, as can be seen by the vacant shops in the Downtown area. However,
the expansion of the office sector as seen by such new structures as the Municipal
Building complex, the County Courthouse, the Citizens Bank, the Federal Building,
and the Certified Public Accountants Building lend credence to the belief that there
is a need to preserve and enhance the Downtown area. Retailing and office activities
depend upon each other in attracting people to any location, whether in an outlying
shopping center or in the Downtown area. The present trend of office expansion in
the Downtown area will tend to encourage retail activities, and vice versa, if sev-
eral pressing problems of circulation (both pedestrian and vehicular) to and within
the Downtown area can be eliminated. Other problems are off-street parking and the
overall Downtown atmosphere.
Downtown Traffic Problems
If the downtown area is to survive the increased competition from new shopping
centers, it must solve the circulation problems such as traffic congestion and on-street
parking. A major step toward relieving congestion and eliminating on-street parking
would be the completion of the proposed parking loop which has been debated since
early 1964 (see Illustration No. 6). This circumferential route would substantially
relieve the discomfort one presently experiences while trying to find convenient park-
ing directly related to business space.
Another series of problems relate to the circulation difficulties encountered with-*"
in the area of the proposed parking loop. In 1854 wnen Gainesville's streets were
originally laid out, no one could foresee a time one hundred years later when the two
hundred foot blocks they designed would be a major problem in moving large volumes
of traffic. Now, however, the many intersections created by the short blocks often
interfere with traffic movement. As traffic volumes increase this problem will become
even more pronounced.
A second problem which stymies circulation in the downtown area is the poor
coordination between traffic signals. Traffic signals should function as both a regu-
lating device and a control designed to keep traffic moving smoothly. Downtown
DOWNTOWN PARKING LOOP
C.B.D. PARKING LOOP
7////\ PARKING LOTS
travel time for shoppers, businessmen, and employees should be kept at a minimum
through the coordination of traffic signals.
A third problem hindering circulation in the downtown area, while being a
definite safety hazard, is the angle parking areas along south First Avenue and east
First Street. The problem arises not so much when entering an angle parking stall,
but when backing out of the stall. This type of parking movement substantially im-
pairs the traffic carrying capacity of a given street, which is its primary function.
The street areas now used for angle parking could be used for street widening and/or
for implementation of the semi-mall or parking mall concepts discussed later.
Off-Street Parking Facilities
While better traffic circulation remains a paramount desire of anyone who has
driven in the Downtown area, there have been recent indications that there is a
shortage of off-street parking during peak hours, in the northeast quadrant. The
ultimate solution to the problem of congested Downtown streets caused, in part,
by existing on-street parking is the implementation of the proposed Parking Loop
with additional off-street parking areas located on the Loop. The Parking Loop
will tend to keep the shopping auto out of Downtown and allow the pedestrian
greater freedom and safety while shopping or doing business. The gradual discon-
tinuance of the dual role of some streets in the Downtown Area in providing both
parking and "through" traffic movements will facilitate the consolidation of small
blocks, thus unifying the shopping areas into a pedestrian - oriented shopping and
business atmosphere (see Illustration No. 11 on page 30).
Semi-Mall and Pedestrian Mall Beautification
Semi-malls have recently been used successfully in revitalizing depressed com-
mercial areas in many American Cities. The concept does not involve street closings
nor does it involve as much capital investment as a pedestrian mal I . The semi-mall
effect is achieved by widening the sidewalks into the areas of existing on-street
parking and landscaping with trees, benches, and attractive displays as is seen
in II lustration No. 7.
The feasibility of semi-mall beautification in Downtown Gainesville is based
upon two assumptions:
1. That the proposed Parking Loop will become a reality.
2. That additional off-street parking will be provided to make feasible
the use of previous on-street parking areas for semi - mall
Pedestrian malls have also had tremendous economic and social impacts on
many of the Downtown areas of our nation's cities. Commercial activities have been
revitalized and expanded in such cities as Kalamazoo, Michigan, Fresno, California,
and Appleton, Wisconsin. Gimble's Department Store is building a large store
in Downtown Appleton largely as a result of the recent construction of parking ramps
and off-street parking facilities, coupled with good pedestrian access via malls
The mall concept could be employed in Downtown Gainesville on several
small side streets (see Illustration No. 11). Three important effects of a ped-
estrian mall in Downtown Gainesville would be:
1 . Pedestrian malls would create pleasant open space and leisure areas,
injecting a sense of tranquilty and pride to persons who are shopping
and doing business in the Downtown area .
2. The mall would enhance pedestrian safety and circulation to and from
parking areas located on the parking loop.
3. The mall could combine small blocks, making possible the elimination
of some Downtown traffic signals.
In summary form, the major problems demoting Downtown Gainesville are of a
circulatory and functional nature. More specifically they are:
A. Not enough well located off-street parking areas.
B. Excessive amount of on-street parking areas.
C. Lack of coordination between Downtown traffic signals.
D. Fragmentation of Downtown into 200 foot square blocks.
E. Lack of open space and leisure areas within the Downtown Area.
F. General lack of provisions for the separation of pedestrian and auto
Illustration No. 9 sketches the parking mall concept following this section.
The basic concept of a parking mall is the utilization of existing wide streets for
the sole purpose of parking automobile. The parking mall prevents "through" traf-
fic movements and better utilized short, disfunctional downtown streets. Appropriate
landscaping to identify and conceal the parking mall is utilized.
Several Downtown streets in Gainesville could be utilized for parking malls,
providing low-cost parking near the major business and retail areas. These streets
include East First Street and South First Avenue.
@[<ETCH ©F PEDESTRIAN MAUL.
OKf^TCH OF PARKIN© MAUL
Parking malls on Downtown Gainesville streets would tend to consolidate small
blocks and encourage pedestrian circulation. A more limited number of improved
streets in the retail business core would be used for carrying large volumes of traffic.
Taxable Importance of Downtown
An effort was made through the City Tax Assesor's Office to compare the im-
portance of Downtown, from a tax producing standpoint, to that of some of the newer
shopping centers and the City as a whole.
A. In 1967, one fourteenth (1/14) or approximately 12.8 million dollars
of the City's total taxable land and improvements lay within the
shaded area, while this area contained lessthan one hundredth (1/100)
of the total area of the City.
B. The following percentage breakdown indicates the taxable importance
of the six types of land use within the downtown area:
1) Retail 51.5%
2) Office 27.5
3) Transportation & Communications 9.0
4) Residential 7.5
5) Warehouse & Wholesale 2.4
6) Vacant 2. 1
C. Approximately 6. 1 million dollars or one-half (1/2) of the total taxable
value of land and improvements within the downtown area lies inside the
proposed parking loop (cross-hatched area).
The tax producing value of the three largest shopping centers (Gainesville Mall
Fields Plaza, Gainesville Shopping Center, and the Westgate Shopping Complex)
can be compared to Downtown. The combined values of these centers was approxi-
mately 7.5 million dollars or only 59 percent of the total value of the Downtown
area. In addition, because of the tax exempt nature of much of the land and
buildings located in and around Downtown (City, County, Federal, churches, etc.)
much of the importance of Downtown as a region-serving center have been over-
looked in the previous discussion.
A recent thesis studying the impact of the office worker on Downtown Gainesville
has recommended the creation of a Downtown improvement fund. The improvement
fund would be supplied by a fixed percentage of an increase in tax revenues resulting
from increased retail sales and subsequent higher land values. L is fund would tend
to perpetuate Downtown development. However, substantial capital outlays for Down-
town improvements should be based upon a detailed study analyzing the future role of
II lustration 10
■Z3I BT rtl
9 TH AVE
. 4TM _ AVE j
!!ave ' «ip
— ^mm i hi
1 1 lL
i/tj/Mt/jJrj. ' 111,
ONi VERSi T> | |
AVE 1 1
1 TAX EXEMPT PROPERTIES & IMPROVEMENTS
AREA WITHIN PARKING LOOP
AREA UNDER CONSIDERATION
Downtown Gainesville and the expected cost benefit relationships of specific pro-
posed capital improvements.
Illustration No. 1 1 is a rendering showing the incorporation of pedestrian malls,
semi-malls, parking malls, and the parking loop in Downtown Gainesville.
Strip Commercial Development
Strip commercial areas consist of shallow tracts of commercial development
spread out along heavily traveled thoroughfares. This type of commercial land use
is often referred to as "ribbon development", "string street", "shoestring" and by
numerous other names. Illustration No. 12 is an example of strip commercial dev-
elopment along a major thoroughfare in Gainesville.
At least two types of strip and scattered commercial development can be cited
in Gainesville: 1) Protrusion along major streets radiating out from the central busi-
ness district; 2) Developments along major cross city thoroughfares intersecting the
streets radiating from the Central Business District.
In the absence of natural or cultural obstacles, the Central Business District
of an American city commonly extends itself outward along major radiating traffic
arteries. The extent to which the district protrudes, and therefore the beginning
point of the strip commercial street, depends on the criteria used for identifying
Central Business District types of establ ishments. The Central Business District uses
seem to occupy less space in proportion to sales and to depend more on the mass mar-
ket than do businesses on the strip commercial streets. It is clear that the services
offered are far in excess of the needs of the local residential enclaves adjoining such
One of the characteristics of this type of string street is its accessibility from
all parts of the City, assured by its proximity to the City's heart. There is also
opportunity to serve customers associated with the district itself. It is common to
find small wholesale distributors as well as establishments performing service functions
for the central business district on this type of strip commercial street.
Several of Gainesville's major cross-town thoroughfares are developing strip
commercial characteristics, and where they intersect with strip commercial streets
radiating from the central business district, a major concentration of commercial
activities is occurring. These intersections have often proven adequate as sites
for shopping centers, which are a more practical and functional type of commercial
land use than strip commercial developments. Unfortunately, Gainesville, like
many other rapidly growing American cities, has chosen to concentrate much of its
commercial expansion into strip commercial developments.
II lustration 12
There are numerous diseconomies to the community associated with strip
commercial development. Strip commercial development hampers comparison
shopping. When stores are strung out along a thoroughfare, customers are usually-
limited to one or possibly two choices of goods. The distances between similar
stores makes further comparison shopping impractical. Retail outlets not located in
recognized shopping centers in Gainesville generally make less efficient use of their
sites. The table below summarizes existing retail land use and land-building ratios.
It is seen that the average noncenter- located establishment utilizes approximately
113% more land per square foot of building area than those establishments located in
shopping centers. JAbl E 9
COMMERCIAL I AND USE
Land Area Building Area Ratio
Establishments in Shopping 5,870,500 1,570,500 3.7:1
Establishments no in Shop- 19,419,500 2,444,500 7.9:1
Total Commercial 25,290,000 4,023,000 6.3:1
* All figures in square feet
Source: DCD estimates based on Land Use Analysis and special non-residential tax
The level of traffic, noise, and bright lights associated with commercial estab-
lishments have a particularly detrimental effect on adjacent residential development,
especially if no buffering or screening is provided,, The linear pattern of strip com-
mercial development exposes more residential structures to this incompatible use than
planned and well buffered shopping centers. Several residential areas in Gainesville
are literally enclosed by strip commercial development. Some of these areas contain
ghetto-like conditions with declining property values and high public service costs,
such as police and fire protection.
Much of older Gainesville is characterized by two hundred foot blocks. The
encouragement of poorly planned strip commercial development accompanied by
more curb cuts would seem suicidal. The problems encountered by ft potential cus-
tomers exiting from and entering the lanes of traffic in a strip commercial area tend
to discourage the use of such establishments. The absence of off-street parking for
strip commercial also tends to dampen sales potential. But perhaps most serious, the
traffic hazards presented by such developments not only are a detriment to the devel-
opment itself, but to the community at large. This is true not only from a safety
standpoint but also from the resultant loss of traffic capacity which frequently
must be made up by additional lanes or new roads.
In recapitulating, strip commercial development tends to limited com-
parison shopping, has a higher land to building area ratio, increases traffic
congestion and traffic hazards, causes rapid deterioration of abutting resi -
dential structures, and frequently necessitates cosl I y improvements 1o the
major "strip" thoroughfares.
FACTORS FAVORING PLANNED SHOPPING CENTERS
OVER STRIP AND SCATTERED CO/vWERCIAL USES
Economic Land Use Linear, uneconomic use of land
Planned Shopping Cp
Compact, economical |i
Effect on Real
Strip commercial usually has a
depressing effect on continguous
residential land. Contiguous
vacant areas tend to be held for
speculation in the hope of in-
creasing values. This makes im-
mediate development forbiding.
The vacant lots grow up in weeds,
having a blighting effect on near-
by residential and commercial
Strip commercial requires the
consumer to use the streets to get
from one shop to another.
Shopping centers can se
gate themselves with a
strip. They can stabiliz
rounding uses and mc!:c
more attractive for rosid
Consumer uses special in
nal walks designed for h
safety and convenience
In strip commercial, the only at-
trations of the business to the
consumer is its own goods and
The combined goods and
vices of the stores in a
shopping center attract c
Strip commercial increases vehic-
ular and pedestrian congestion at
Most vehicular and pede:
traffic are segregated fro
TABl.F. 10 (Continued)
Haphazard location of driveways
increases the points of conflict
on busy streets.
Normally strip commercial has no
definite boundaries. The use of
the contiguous land remains un-
certain, vacant lots become
blighted and the surrounding area
Individual shops may be more con-
veniently located for a few.
Scattered locations present a
more difficult and expensive
problem of providing necessary
police and fire protection and
other community services
More traffic lanes must be pro-
vided at citizen expense to han-
dle traffic due to decreased
Normally shopping centers have
some kind of buffer and the
boundaries are usually defin-
ite and permanent. This
leaves less question as to the
future development of the sur-
A single location creates a
mere important and centrally
located meeting place for the
residents of the surrounding
Police and fire protection
and other community services
can bo more efficiently and
economically rendered at less
cost to the taxpayer.
S hooping Confers
Shopping centers now account for about 30% of the total retail sales in the
United States even though they only have 12.5% of the total number of stores. ^
Some general rules of thumb based on available statistics indicate the following
characteristics based on size.
SHOPPING CENTERS -
Gross Amout Retail
Sales Million Dollars
Annual P-tail Sal
Per Car .pace
Source: Applied Parking Techniques, Parking Progress, Bulletin # 121, 1968
On an average, one acre of land will support 30,000 square feet of parking -
parking and floor area being a 3:1 ratio. This type of commercial development
is to be encouraged in the future. Land, both that making up the site and the
surrounding land, is used economically and strengthens the identity of the sur-
rounding neighborhood it is designed to serve. Properly designed shopping centers
can do much to encourage good traffic and pedestrian circulation.
Planned shopping centers have been developed in Gainesville at a significant
rate during the past decade (See Illustration 15 ). Approximately 39% of com-
mercial floor space in Gainesville Urban Area is presently in planned shopping
centers, while they constitute only 23% of the total land in commercial us-3.
Many existing Gainesville centers lack visual appeal due to an absense of
trees, malls, proper integration with surrounding usos and general landscaped.^
areas within the center and around the perimeter. The term "asphalt desert" has
often been applied to this type of development. In order to improve existing
shopping centers and provide logical criteria for future shopping center devel-
opments, the following general standards have been established.
Although only one or two existing shopping centers are "purebred" and fit
a textbook definition, Gainesville's shopping centers have been categorized primarily
according to their function in the community. Four distinct types of centers
exist in the Urban Area: 1) local convenience centers, 2) neighborhood centers,
3) community centers, and 4) major centers (see Table 12 on Page 92).
Local Convenience Centers should be located at the intersections of col-
lector streets and along major thoroughfares. Their service radius is about one-
half (1/2) mile, serving a minimum of 500 families. Local convenience centers
attract some of their customers on foot, while limited off-street parking space is
also provided. A convenience grocery store is usually the major tenant along
with a few other convenience stores, such as a laundromat, hairdresser, barber
shop or small hardware store. Twenty-six local convenience centers are identi-
fied and discussed in a later section of this report.
Neighborhood Centers cat er primarily to the convenience needs of the
neighborhood also and differ from the purely convenience center primarily
in size only. Whereas a small self service grocery is typically the major tenant
of a local convenience center, a supermarket is generally the major tenant of a
neighborhood center. Other typical tenants include drug stores, personal ser-
vice stores and most non-comparison type uses. It caters to a larger population of
approximately 1,500 or more families and has a service radius of about one and
one-half (1 1/2) miles. Most uf its c^tomers arrive by automobile. The latter
dictates a location on a major thoroughfare, preferably at the intersection of
two thoroughfares or at least the intersection of a major thoroughfare and a
Neighborhood centers should be located centrally to the area they are to
serve, which is a neighborhood or equivalent residential area. It is therefore
important that they be designed and landscaped in a manner such that they will
complement and not be injurious to the surrounding residential area. Gainesville
has three centers which are classified as neighborhood and which are discussed
in more detail in a following section. Perhaps the best example of a typical
neighborhood center is Northgate on 16th Avenue.
Community Centers are the first level center which carries comparison
shopping goods, and caters to a much larger area than the two previous types
of centers. They should have good automobile access from four directions
on streets with ampl carrying capacity. The service radius is three to five
(3-5) miles serving a minimum of 5,000 families. The major tenants of these
centers are a variety store and/or junior department store and one or more
supermarkets. Well planned off-street parking should be a characteristic of this
type of center. More specifically, landscaping is used to encourage the use of
parking aisles instead of allowing the practice of "shortcutting" across semi-vacant
"asphalt jungles". The overall character of the center is enhanced when a low
buffer, such as a hedge, is used to dampen the effect of large expanses of parking
There are four shopping centers in the Urban Area which were classified
as community centers. None of these could be considered very typical of this
type of center by accepted definition. Westgate and Central Plaza, while
functioning as community centers, are both small in comparison to national
standards. Field's Plaza is a "hybrod" which really serves the total population
of the Urban Area, although in volume and size it is more like a community
center than any larger center classification. The Gainesville Shopping Center
is the largest community center in the Urban Area.
Major Centers are the largest centers in an area and should therefore
only be located on major highwavs or expressways and should be easily ac-
cesible from all parts of the regional trade area. With a service radijs of
eight (8) miles or more, such a center would serve Alachua County and perhaps
areas in north central Florida outside the County. Designed to serve a minimum
of 100,000 persons the major tenants ere one or more department stores, variety
stores, comparison shopping stores, and personal service stores, large on-site
parking areas are provided for the regional consumer. As before, properly
landscaped parking areas and a possible mounding effect can be used to conceal large
parking areas and is useful in promoting the desirability of the shopping center and
the surrounding land uses. The Gainesville Mall is the only development clas-
sified as major center in the Urban Area.
A Choice of Shopping Center Patterns.
With the exception of the new Gainesville Mall, all shopping centers in
the Gainesville Urban Area have been ouilt in a "strip" pattern (see Illustration
13. This building pattern functions well in a local convenience center or
neighborhood center with a limited number of shops, but its apprcpriatness in
community and major centers should be investigated.
The Gainesville Shopping Center, a community center, stretches in a
linear fashion approximately 1,000 feet (about four city blocks) along a major
thoroughfare. The two major tenants, a large supermarket and a junior de-
partment store are at either end of the "strip". Two shopping characteristics
not meant to be found in shopping centers can be observed at this center:
1 . Shoppers have a tendency to use their cars to get from one end
of the "strip" to the other, creating congestion and safety hazards
within the parking area.
2. Shoppers tend to do less comparison shopping, since the stores
are not conveniently grouped.
Several other centers in Gainesville have similar problems, but to a lesserextent
in most cases.
II lustration 13
CHOICE OF SI POPPING CENTER PATTERN
The four other basic patterns: the "L ', the "U", the Mall, and the Cluster
can be used in most shopping centers. The "L" and "U" can be turned in various
directions for optimum site orientation with respect to the site shape and to the
surrounding street patterns.
Location Tendencies of Existing Shopping Centers
There is a definite tendency toward the grouping of shopping centers either
next to each other (Field's Plaza and the Gainesville Mall) or within each other's
In the case of the location of the Gainesville Mall next to Field's Plaza,
the two centers interrelate and form a much larger and more complete shopping
center complex which effectively draws from a larger regional trade area. At
the present time these two centers depend upon each other, in part, for drn v ig
from a broad range of social - economic groups. Their proximity to each other
is and should continue to be beneficial. However, as shopping centers concen-
trate around a single major intresection, costly traffic congestion and obsolete
thoroughfares are the results. The cross traffic between these two centers has
created a definite hazard on 23rd Boulevard.
In the case of the smaller existing neighborhood centers, their market areas
(approximately 3 miles in diameter) overlap substantially. This means that the
effected shopping centers cannot exist solely on their market area sales potential
but must attract sales from a larger area. This becomes a serious handicap to
these centers when a new, well-located shopping center begins to service a
portion of their over - extended market area. This leads to the creation of a
group of weak shopping centers and over - competition.
Recent Trends for Commercial Location by Type of Store
An examination of building starts since 1963 indicates that the following
type of retail establishments tended to locate in planned shopping centers:
. Department and variety stores
. Apparel and accessory stores
. Drug and jewelry stores
Laundries, beauty, and barber shops
Those commercial uses locating predominantly in "strip" or "scattered" lo-
cations since 1962 are:
Eating and drinking establishments
Indoor commercial amusement businesses
Medical, health, and legal services
Motels, hotels, and tourist homos
Building materials, hardware and farm equipment stores
Those commercial uses which did not exhibit a preference for location during
Furniture, home furnishings and equipment stores.
Finance, Insurance and real estate offices.
Summary of Existing Commercial
Existing commercial land use in the Gainesville Urban Area util izes about
578 acres. There are presently approximately 1,900 acres of commercial zoning
in the Area, 1, 164 acres of which is vacant land. There are an additional 2,909
acres of other zoning which allows commercial development, 2,400 acres of which
is also vacant.
The overall commercial pattern in Gainesville has taken to sprawl develop-
ment with some major thoroughfares lined with "strip development" and intersections
of major streets intensely developed with shopping centers. Downtown's problems
lie not only with increasing competition from outlying shopping centers, but with
an inability to solve its problems of poor circulation and inadequate off-street
Efforts must be made now to establish policies and means through which the
revitalization and renewal of Downtown and outlying shopping districts can be
achieved. Firm policies relating to the future location and development of new
shopping districts must be established.
GOAI.S AND PRINCIPLES FOR COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT
The development of commercial land lias a,roa'ly changed in this country
over the years. At one time pedestrian traffic dictated the growth pattern, hut
now it is geared almost exclusively to ihe needs and demands of the automobile.
While pedestrian movement inside shopping centers and within the CCD are im-
portant factors, parking needs, flexibility of site choice resulting from freedom
of movement, and one-step shopping are all dominant factors in the dcvclcpment
of today's commercial growth patlern.
These auto generated characteristics have led to the evolution of the shop-
ping center as the principal development pattern of commercial land use. This
evolution is far from complete, however, as ceiloin uses have continued to lo-
cate along major traffic arteries on individual sites, with their only concession
to the shopping center concept being in the form of larger lots to handle more
autos than before. This letter type of commercial land use has generally led to
the reservation of most land on all major traffic, arteries for commercial development.
This reservation, whether actually zoned for commercial use or only held vacant
by the owner in hopes of such future use, not only greatlv exceeds any loqical
demand for such land, but frequently is ill located to serve the actual demand
as development proceeds farther out into the suburbs. In addition, those areas
for which there is a demand and on which development occurs often die of self-
strangulation as over-development clogs the traffic arteries on which they are
Some more rational pattern of commercial development is essential. To this
end the following sections contain certain goals and principles, which if followed
and implemented, should go a long way toward achieving a better land use pattern
in the Urban Area.
Goals for Commercial Development
1. Adequate Supply of Goods and Services
The population of the Urban Area has a purchasing power and demand or
need for a given level of goods and services which should be met locally
to the maximum extent possible. It is the objective of this Plan to assure
the fulfillment of this need by providing adequate, convenient sites for the
outlets which cater to this purchasing power or need.
2. Varied Sites Suitable for a Variety of Outlets
The need for suitable sites to provide for the many varies outlets for
goods and services spans a wide range in size and location. It varies from the
single use on a major thoroughfare which relies almost exclusively on passerby
traffic, such as a tourist facility to a range in shopping centers from the smallest
convenience center to the large regional facility serving a even larger
area than that considered in this plan.
3. Functional, Safe, Attractive Design and Display
Many successful businesses attract attention to themselves through
distinctive store design, advertising or display. While individually such
displays may not be offensive, when included with others the results have
an unsightly, cluttered effect.
Commercial centers are also important focal points, usually located
on the major thoroughfares of the community. Their appearance is there-
fore a community interest which should be considered in the compre-
4. Minimum Conflict With Other Urban Activities
Shopping areas are among the busiest places in the Urban Area, with
their basic success often measured by the traffic they generate. This level
of activity with its attendant noise, odors, dirt, glare and safety hazards
frequently conflicts with other uses which have a less intense nature,
particularly that of the residential sector. It is therefore a very basic
objective of this plan to minimize such conflict.
5. Effective Use and Development of Old Centers
Commercial areas, like all other uses, can become obsolescent with
age. With such obsolescence come blight with attendant cost not just
to the owners of the property but to the community at large. A goal of
this plan is to encourage the conservation of such areas in keeping with
the old adage that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.
The following are the major premises and principles to be adhered to in future
Commercial activities are oriented to the automobile.
1 . Location
Commercial activities will be located on major streets and particularly
at the intersections of such major streets and central to their service area.
Local access streets by their design and nature should not carry the non-
local traffic associated with commercial development. Concentrations
of commercial at intersections distributes the traffic to and from such
concentrations over tha Jorgest possible street network and is therefore
to be desired when these streets are designed to handle such traffic.
Access to and from commercial sites should be carefully designed and
located so as to minimize friction with flow of traffic on the adjacent
thoroughfares. All access points on a street by their nature create points
of conflict with the flow of through traffic, causing delay, reducing the
street capacity, and creating hazards.
Commercial activities must be provided with ample parking to satisfy
the demands of all customers of that activity. If less parking than needed
is provided it is detrimental to the welfare of that activity as well as the
general community. Vacant stores resulting from insufficient parking
are a blighting influence, and public streets designed to carry traffic
can become extremely expensive parking lots.
4. Concentration of Uses
Concentration of both similar and complementary uses are encouraged
to the extent that such grouping promotes a more efficient, viable and
logical use of land. Certain uses frequently lend strength and support
to each other when grouped together, and therefore are encouraged,
unless such concentrations are at the expense of adequate service to the
whole area, or by design or nature become a burden on the area v/here
they are located .
Basic conflicts occur where two different uses of land meet, with the
extent of such conflict varying with the difference in intensity of each
use, aesthetic qualities, the amount of buffering provided between such
uses, and many other factors.
1 . Location
Incompatible land uses will not be located adjoining to one another
without sufficient buffering to insure the harmonious existence of both
2. Transitional Uses as Duffers
When not contrary to any other principle set forth herein, incompatible
land uses may be buffered by transitioned uses more compatible with the
use on each side; for example, offices or multiple family may be used to
separate single family areas from commercial areas.
Screening by walls and/or landscaping will be required where other
separation is not possible.
A rear to rear arrangement between incompatible land uses will be pro-
moted in deference to a front to front or front to rear relationship. The
latter two shall be avoided whenever possible with a side to rear rela-
tionship permitted only where absolutely necessary.
Shopping centers are the principal development pattern in retailing
1 • Encouragement of Shopping Centers
Because shopping centers more logically adhere to modern standards in
commercial development, particularly in recognizing the importance of
the automobile in their design, they are to be encouraged in preference
to scattered, unconcentrated and unplanned commercial development.
2. Shopping Center Design and Development
Because they are larger, normally a group of stores and not a single use,
shopping centers have a greater impact on the community than a single
use and therefore, the design of centers including considerations of
traffic flow and control, both internally and externally, compatibility
with the surrounding uses and the general arrangement of the center must
be given proportionate attention before a center is constructed; and
likewise, location and market area must be considered and centers not
constructed simply to supplant an existing center or because it is a
better arrangement of commercial uses.
Not all future commercial activities will be located in planned shopping
1. Development of Vacant Commercial Land
Non-center commercial uses should be encouraged to locateon those
vacant parcels of land in existing commercial areas in deference to the
needless opening up of new areas to strip commercial.
2. Sites for Marginal Uses
The legitimate needs of marginal or so called "incubator" commercial
enterprises can best be served by the "fillcring down" process of exist-
ing commercial as opposed to opening up new areas to commercial devel-
3. Spread of Commercial
The existence of commercial on one corner of an intersection need not
dictate the development of all corners with the same or similar use;
nor does the existence of commercial on a major thoroughfare dictate
that all frontage must be similarly used.
Commercial activities frequently occupy the most conspicuous sites in
an area, and are important influences on the impression which others
have of that area.
1 . Appearance
The control of signs, promotion of landscaping and overall appearance of
commercial areas are legitimate concerns of the general public and
will be guaranteed through site plan approval.
THE PRELIMINARY COMMERCIAL LAND USE PLAN
The Preliminary Commercial Land Use Plan is the community's graphic guide
as to how and where future commercial growth should occur. It is not law nor does
it necessarily dictate the detailed development of every parcel of land having
commercial potential. It is subject to future revisions and reconsiderations via
public hearings. In essence, it is meant to be a general public policy plan for
Conservation and Rehabilitation of Existing Strip Commercial Concentrations
The Gainesville Urbanized Area has many distinct commercial concentrations.
These consist of both planned shopping centers and concentrations of unplanned strip
developments. Some of the latter are still relatively healthy and are located in or
are serving stable residential neighborhoods. But even the healthiest of these "strip"
commercial districts may begin to feel the impact of the shopping center and its many
advantages. These same shopping districts, with their lack of unity, definative boun-
daries, off-street parking, and other amenities, are gradually affecting the surrounding
With the continuation of the trend in shopping center development and the
possibility of Downtown revetal ization, it is only logical to assume that many of
these districts cannot continue to prosper unless some program of action is t^iken to
improve their competitive position. At the same time the city cannot affort'to reap
the ill effects (tax revenue loss, additional cost of surrounding residential neigh-
borhood, etc.) resulting from these shopping districts being removed from economic
Conservation of a commercial strip area need not be an expensive proposition,
compared to other renewal programs. Actions that might be included under conser-
vation are: paint-up and clean-up measures, better sign control, coordinated
leasing practices based on the compatibility of uses, better traffic control, a con-
siderable range of simple remodeling, provision of various amentities, and other
items which can be achieved by a local organization and cooperation among mer-
chants and owners.
Rehabilitation of a commercial strip involves a more drastic and concerted
program. It generally involves a major re-arrangement of the layout of a district,
adequately planned and properly located off-street parking facilities, considerable
demolition and redevelopment and adjustment of the affected street pattern.
In most of Gainesville's problem commercial areas conservation and limited
rehabilitation, in the form of providing better access and off-street parking, will
be recommended. No major demolition will be required. Sketches of the major
commercial strip areas of the community with recommendations for improving some
are included in following sections.
Central Business District
The geographic center of the Central Business District is approximately at the
intersection of Main Street and University Avenue, the ordinate streets from which
all other streets are numbered in Gainesville. The businesses on the blocks immediate'
ly surrounding this intersection are primarily retail outlets using only the ground floor,
with the upper floor being used by service establishments generally associated with
Downtown,as storage for the main use in the building or as offices. A significant amoun
of the floor space is presently vacant. This may be attributed, in large part, to the trer
Gainesville and other cities toward shopping center patronage for retail goods.
Several office buildings have located on the periphery of the retail core. This
trend is evidenced by the existence of NE 1st Street and North Main Street between
North 2nd and 8th Avenues. The frontage of SW 4th Avenue is also largely used by
offices. Other predominantly non-pedestrian - oriented uses such as auto-sales
and services and wholesaling and warehousing have located along University Avenue
and Main Street near the edges of the intensely used land within the Central Business
Governmental operations play a very significant role in Downtown Gainesville.
City, County and Federal buildings form a "governmental triangle" in the eastern
portion of the Central Business District. The new Municipal Building - Library com-
plex and the Federal Building represent recent very significant commitments on the
part of government to enhance Downtown Gainesville as a business, governmental,
and civic center.
The marginal residential areas immediate surrounding the Central Business District
are presently mixed with scattered retail outlets and offices. Much of the residential
areas in the near southwest and northwest, in particular, are in need of immediate
It is recommended that the area generally bounded by the proposed parking loop
be developed and/or redeveloped with retail outlets and offices which are pedestrian -
oriented, which is now this area's predominant role. The existing character of devel-
opment in this area, together with the closely related existing off-street parking and
recommended off-street parking tied to the loop streets, should foster such a pedestrian
oriented role in the future for this portion of the Central Business District.
EXISTING LAND USE - 1969
CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT
I j MULTIPLE FAMILY
IHH INDUSTRIAL (wholesale — warehousing!
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It is recommended that the frontage on North Main Street north of North
2nd Avenue to North 8th Avenue continue to function as an office sales and
service district. It is recommended that in the event of redevelopment of the
area west of Main additional depth be secured for the Main Street frontage to
facilitate the eventuality of eliminating on-street parking on Main Street. The
types of uses recommended for this area are generally low intensity land users
requiring only a limited number of ingress and egress points to handle a low
volume of traffic. This frontage represents a step down of land use between the
parking loop area and the Gainesville Shopping Center area just to the north.
It is recommended that the frontage on NE 1st Street continue to develop
for office uses to complement the services and activities now characteristic of
the Central Business District. Under no circumstances should retail sales in-
trude into this predominantly office area. Northeast 1st Street is designated
only as a minor street in the Proposed Street Classification System for the
Gainesville Area and as such is not designed to handle large volumes of
The area bounded by west 3rd and 6th Streets and North 3rd Avenue and
South 2nd Avenue should continue as the location of a mixture of wholesaling,
warehousing, transportation, and auto sales and service uses. These uses are
not pedestrian oriented and represent a "step down" in land use intensity
from the parking loop - oriented shops and offices to future residential redev-
elopment areas to the north.
The large area designated for offices immediately south of the afore-
mentioned area represents a continuation of the office trend already present
in this area. The proposed southerly extension of SW 6th Street will make
this general area more easily accessible from other areas of Gainesville.
This office area provides a land use intensity buffer between the more in-
tensely used retail areas to the north and east and the proposed residential
redevelopment area immediately south.
It is recommended that the frontage along south Main Street continue
development and act as an expansion of Central Business District oriented
offices, wholesaling and warehousing, with a gradual trend toward light in-
dustrial uses adjacent to the South Main Street Industrial Park on the east
side of Main Street. These land uses represent a "stepping down" in in-
tensity away from the parking loop area allowing South Main Street to carry
"through traffic" more easily to and from major concentrations of land uses.
The proposed multiple family area abutting the Main Street commercial
frontage on the west acts as a buffer betv/een the Main Street uses and the
residential area farther to the west. Apartment development is recommended
for the designated areas immediately east and south of the Gainesville Sun
newspaper plant. These areas front on minor streets which would not allow
commercial development or a continuation of warehousing without substantial
improvements to the existing streets. In addition to providing a "step down"
of intensity away from the South Main Street frontage, they provide a feasible
reuse of this land when redevelopment of the marginal structures is necessary.
Serious consideration has been given in recent months to the possibility of
building a municipal Civic Center, which could be a tremendous asset to a
growing city such as Gainesville. To date, no feasibility study has been com-
pleted with recommendations for the location of such a site. It is recommended,
if a Downtown location were specified in such a study, that consideration be
given to redeveloping the area generally east of the Municipal Building - Library
complex bounded by University and north 3rd Avenues and east 3rd Street and
the Boulevard. This site would blend in well, and tie together, the surrounding
governmental activities and Central Business District uses. It is well located
with respect to the existing and proposed transportation links and with the area's
largest employer and source of most large scale entertainment and educational
activities, the University of Florida. Such a Civic Center complex could stimu-
late Downtown redevelopment and make the Central Business District area a
more fitting example of the progress being made in the "University City".
It is recommended that the offices fronting on NE 1st Street and the pub-
licly designated land in the northeast quadrant of the Central Business District
be buffered from the very substantial single family areas in the near northeast
by medium density apartment developments. Much of this area is presently
developed with such apartments and single family dwellings converted to apart-
The residential area in the near northwest quadrant west of West 1st
Street and north of NW 3rd Avenue is recommended for redevelopment. Pre-
sently, this area is predominantly occupied by substandard dwellings. It is
recommended that redevelopment for residential re-use be considered in the
near future .
Unplanned Commercial Districts
Unplanned commercial districts have developed along most of Gainesville's major
thoroughfares. The pace at which this type of development is occurring has accelerated
in the past decade. With expected improvements to many of the major thoroughfares,
the pressure exerted for this type of development can be expected to continue.
Strip commercial development as was mentioned before, effects large areas of
abutting and nearby land uses. In the following map, seventeen commercial districts
are delineated, most of which include at least one planned shopping center. Two
"strip" maps of each individual district have been prepared. The first map shows
existing land uses, while the second map shows recommended future development
and/or redevelopment of each area.
|, NW 13th Street and 6t h 5trooV, North c. r 39th Avenue
. This area is characterized by a predominance o r mobile heme sales generally north
of NW 45th Avenue. The area to the south is mostly mixed residential with some local
convenience sales and services on the major thorough", ' „ A large auto sales and ser-
vice center is also located along NW 13th Street.
The area north from NW 45th Avenue should continue to cater to mobile home sales
and services because of the fine transportation links and the availability of large expanses
of vacant land. This eventuality would facilitate comparison shopping for mobile
homes and would group similar and compatible commercial uses, a goal stated previously.
In addition, this sales area is removed from any extensive residential development. The
NW 13th Street at NW 39th Avenue intersection should continue to function as a local
convenience commercial area. On the east side of NW 13th Street north and south from
NW 39th Avenue, it is recommended that a "stepping down" of intensities from retail
to office and apartments be implemented. This practice will tend to perpetuate the in-
tersection's functional role as a traffic carrier while discouraging the needless "hep-
skotching" of commercial away from a major intersection. The residential area surrounding
the auto dealer on NW 13th Street is recommended to be developed as single family because
of the predominance of existing single family. The frontage south of the auto dealer is
recommended to develop for offices to NW 39th Avenue. The area west of this frontage,
already predominantly single family, should continue as such. Although the area in the
southwest quadrant abuts a busy intersection, replatting with lots backing on NW 13th
Street and NW 39th Avenue should make this land acceptable for single family use.
The area bounded by NW 13th and 6th Streets and NW 39th and 42nd Avenues, al-
ready is predominantly mixed with single family, duplex, and quadraplex developments,
and it is recommended to continue as such. The vacant parcels surrounding the service
station on the corner of NW 13th Street at 42nd Avenue should be utilized for duplex
development as well as the frontage just north to provide a bu c fer to the existing abut-
ting single family area which should be preserved.
It is recommended that the triangular shaped area of land north of NW 39th Avenue
east of NW 6th Street to the railroad continue development as it has in the past. That is,
the upper portion of this area should be utilized for v/arehousing, wholesaling, and very
light industry. The lower portion is recommended for development of low density (8 Units
per acre) apartments to blend in with existing nearby apartments and single family uses.
This area is presently subdivided into parcels of varying shapes and sizes with many of the
parcels not being serviced by streets. It is recommended that the property owners in this
area reach a cooperative agreement in an effort to redevelop and/or replat their land.
SINGLE FAM I LY , [sTf/d.| single family - duplex
L.D ] LOW I NSITV, IM.D.J MED. DENSITY,
* I H.D.I HIGH L NSITY , [KATh] MOBILE HOME
( LEGEND APPLIES TO REMAINING STRIP MAPS)
INDUSTRIAL, r w./w^ wholesale - warehousing
V c r< ~yi INSTITUTIONAL (public-semi public), [p] parking
(i-EGEISID APPLIES TO REMAINING STRIP MAPS)
2. NW 13th Street (Gainesville Mall Area)
This is a regional-serving retail, entertainment, and service complex.
The new Gainesville Mall is the largest of the retailing centers while two
other retailing complexes are located on opposite corners. Traffic congestion
at the intersection of NW 13th Street and 23rd Boulevard has multiplied with
recent commercial developments.
Additional commercial development east of the Gainesville Mall is
proposed, however, necessary precautions should be taken to preserve the
traffic carrying potential of this busy area. A "stepping down" of inten-
sity away from the intersection eastward on 23rd Boulevard is presently
apparent and recommended to continue in the plan.
The southeast corner of this intersection is presently vacant. It is
recommended that a limited intensity retail outlet utilize the corner with
office uses "stepping down" away from the corner as buffers. This will
lessen congestion at this intersection.
A "stepping down" of intensity in the blocks north of the Mall area
on both sides of NW 13th Street is shown. Offices and low density apart-
ments are indicated. These uses provide a compatible low intensity re-
lief to the existing residential development. A buffer of low density
apartments is recommended west of Fields Plaza with a natural buffer re-
commended for the area between the Mall and Hogtown Creeko A small
buffer of low density apartments could be considered as a substitute in
this area where there is enough land, but should not cross the natural
boundry created by the creek.
NW 13th Street - NW 8th Avenue to NW 22nd Avenue
This strip area running along NW 13th Street is a mixed regional
office and local convenience district with scattered residential uses.
Several local convenience retail activities have grouped around the
intersection of NW 13th Street and 16th Avenue.
There is an apparent "stepping down" of intensity along NW 13th
Street north of NW 16th Avenue away from both 16th Avenue and 23rd
Boulevard. It is recommended that this pattern be continued on exist-
ing vacant parcels in this area because of the presence of the high school
and the existing traffic congestion caused by automotive turning move-
ments along this section of NW 13th Street.
The existing residential development along 16th Avenue is substantial
and should be protected against encroaching commercial. It is recom-
mended that no further rezoning from residential uses to commercial uses
be approved on NW 16th Avenue west of the intersection. Any such
rezoning would provide an inroad to strip commercial development.
The frontage along NW 13th Street south of 16th Avenue is being
utilized to a large degree for offices. The offices are well landscaped
and blend well with nearby residential areas. It is therefore recom-
mended that this use be continued.
Ft is recommenced that the vacaitf parcel west of the Villa Ravine
apartments on NW 16th Avenus be developed for low density apart-
ment development as a step down to the nearby single family devel-
opments. This type of development would blend well with the exist-
ing topography and other physiographic features of this parcel.
NW 13th Street - University Avenue to NW 8th Avenue
This commercial area is a mixed non-local retail strip with local conven-
ience outlets catering mainly to a University - clientele. The commercial
district is flanked on the east by a dilapidated high density residential area
and on the west by an area of student occupied multiple family residences.
It is of paramount importance to decrease the obvious detrimental ef-
fects this commercial strip is having upon the surrounding residential uses.
Nearly all land fronting on NW 13th Street in this area has been developed,
therefore redevelopment, at higher intensities, can be expected in the
future. Stepping down of intensities from commercial to apartments to
single family is depicted going east and west from NW 13th Street. Recom-
mendations regarding street closings and off-street parking are illustrated in
the future land use plan.
It is recommended that the vacant frontage along NW 13th Street just
south of NW 8th Avenue be developed commercially. The existing steep
slopes on these parcels, however, present some problems for development.
It is recommended that the lower level, with limited 8th Avenue frontage
be developed for offices as a "stepping down" of intensity away from
13th Street. It is also strongly recommended that no retail activities in-
trude into the office - oriented area north of NW 8th Avenue. The 8th
Avenue overpass and the different land use characteristics north of 8th
Avenue are logical physical and social bases for limiting retail activities
south of 8th Avenue, not to mention the necessity of preventing further
congestion of 13th Street which would result from the more intensive com-
5. West Univ ersity Avenue - 6th Street to 13th Street
Pf!T1 h ^>::^
KI.OR I DA
spin mw^wmjTi w
This commercial district is a mixed student - oriented, general commercial and office
area. Besides containing Santa Fe Junior College, such other tenants as a bank, several
offices, retail clothing outlets, drug stores, restaurants, service stations, and other ser-
vice outlets have located here. The commercial strip is surrounded on the north and south
by a mixture of student - oriented multi - family dwellings and single family homes, with
a medical district farther south.
It would be desirable, if possible, to change the character of this area to lesser
intensive uses, such as offices. This is the major east-west traffic artery in the City,
linking the two heaviest activity centers - the University and the Central Business District.
The present traffic congestion on this artery will undoubtedly continue, which may well
cause the area to suffer from competition from other more accessible commercial areas.
Possible exclusion of on-street parking on University Avenue will probably be necessary
to relieve congestion and to increase capacity of the street. Some redevelopment including
street closings and provisions for off-street parking related to these businesses will be neces-
sary to stimulate a better utilization of the area and bring economic stability to the area.
The future land use plan illustrates some improvements and recommended land use relation-
ships for this area which will eliminate much of the traffic congestion on University Avenue
a major east-west thoroughfare.
; . , rn r — r — r nw 3 rd ave. nc*r ~
West University Avenue - West 13th Street to West 19th Street
This commercial area is almost wholly oriented toward University student patronage
A wide variety of local convenience services and goods are offered, ranging from a
convenience grocery store to a branch post office. The area immediately north to NW
5th Avenue is predominantly student oriented - multiple family residential in character.
N W 3RD lSS/l
WEST UNIVERSITY AVENU
UN I VERSIT Y
FlOR I DA
It is strongly recommended that under no circumstances should additional commercial
uses be permitted beyond the University Avenue frontages because the existing street
network in the residential area north of University Avenue is insufficient to handle non-
residential traffic, and commercial uses unquestionably have a blighting influence on
residential uses. If additional land should become available it should be utilized for
off-street parking as this is a major problem in the area now. Evidence has shown that
students, as well as most other people, use their cars even if the store is within easy
walking distance. Eventually the existing parking I es on University Avenue in this
area will, out of necessity, be required for moving c Jitional traffic volumes and/or
turning lanes. Future development should be of a character to complement the goods
and services offered by the University, as well as, the physical make-up of the University
SW 2ND AVE
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7. Southwest Medical District (Alachua General Hospital)
This area represents a large concentration of medical services. There are
several vacant parcels of land available for office expansions. University -
oriented apartment developments abut the medical area both to the west and
The planned expansion of the Alachua General Hospital at its existing
site will strengthen and solidify the district. The continued evolution of this
area into a medical district could be encouraged. This grouping of similar and
compatible uses is one of the principles stated previously. In addition, the planned
extension of SW 6th Street south to SW 16th Avenue should also enhance the area
by providing better access.
8. SW 13th Street - Archer Road to Bivens Arm
This area has developed as a highway oriented strip commercial district.
It also serves the daily convenience needs of a student - oriented population,
but largely serves a tourist and transient segment with restaurants and motel
accommodations. The commercial strip is flanked by high density apartments
along SW 16th Avenue, near Biven's Arm and on the west side of SW 13th
Street. There are fine single family residential areas abutting the apartments
and commercial areas in several instances.
A land use plan already adopted for this district designates the area im-
mediately south of Archer Road and the Medical Center as an office center
complementing and buffering the existing residential uses in the area. This use
would act as a "step down" in intensity from the high density apartments a-
butting on the south, while providing land for compatible uses adjacent to
the existing University and Veterans medical complexes on the west and north.
The proposed low density (8 units/acre) apartment land use in the south-
west quadrant of the SW 13th Street and Archer Road intersection represents
a step down in intensity from commercial on the south to a very busy and
critical intersection. This use would also be a continuation of the present
single family - low density apartment mix.
South of 16th Avenue on the west side of 13th Street the frontage is pre-
dominantly developed commercially with high density apartments to the west.
It is recommended that east-west access to this area be improved as designated
on the adopted SW 13th Street Land Use Plan. The land just south of the Holi-
day Inn on SW 14th Street is recommended for development into medium density
apartments which is stepping down from the high density areas to the north there-
by decreasing potential traffic congestion in the area. This area will likely be
"land-locked" by commercial uses in the future.
The large parcel of land along the west side of SW 13th Street just
above Biven 's Arm is designated for commercial uses. The land is pre-
sently zoned shopping center (SC). This frontage, through site plan ap-
proval, should be developed with a limited number of access points via
service roads. This is necessary to insure this area of SW 13th Street
against the congestion now apparent in the SW 13th Street at 16th Avenue
area. It is recommended that the land just west of this area be devel-
oped for medium density apartments because of the demand for apart-
ments in this general area and because of the natural lakeside setting
forming a buffer between such a development and the single family resi-
dential south and west of the lake.
It is recommended that the large parcel of land next to Audubon
Park fronting on SW 13th Street and abutting Seaboard Airline Railroad
tracks be developed for low density residential use. Its proximity to a
fine single family residential area, as well as, the many problems of cir-
culation to and from the parcel, dictate a low intensity use. Its close
proximity to the SW 9th Road and SW 13th Street intersection and site
distance problems from the railroad overpass also prohibits a high traffic
volume use. The aforementioned parcel together with the large parcel
directly south, which is shown for office use, represent a "stepping down"
of intensity in a very high traffic volume and congested SW 13th Street
The recently adopted SW 13th Street Land Use Plan shows the re-
maining frontage on the east side of 13th Street for commercial uses to
a point just south of SW 25th Place. Medium density apartment devel-
opment is indicated just above Biven's Arm. This is a "stepping down"
of use from the commercial just to the north. A "stepping down" with
low density multiple family from SW 13th Street east to the single family
Kirkwood area is recommended for the area where medium high density
multiple family would otherwise abut the single family residential area.
In addition several existing natural buffers around the single family are
NW 6th Street - 19th Lane to 30th Avenue
This is a scattered commercial area with some limited non- local
outlets of wholesale vegteable and meats, lumber, offices, etc. There
is a secondary local convenience area near NW 28th Avenue. This
strip development is surrounded predominantly by a mixture of single
family dwellings with a mixture of apartments in some areas.
It is recommended that only limited retail expansion be permitted
in this area because of the close proximity of several large retail con-
centrations. As shown on the plan, the retail concentration at the
corner of NW 6th Street and 23rd Boulevard should be buffered from
existing single family areas by apartments and offices. This is a stepping
down in use and helps to relieve traffic congestion at the intersection
and forms a better transition to the single family developments.
Low density multiple family is proposed along NW 6th Street from
29th Avenue to 32nd Avenue. Some of this frontage has already been
developed as such. A mixture of single family andduplex development
is recommended in the areas shown which either abut commercial uses or
apartments. This mixture has been proposed only in those areas where
sufficient vacant land exist and where the potential for additional sin-
gle family residences has waned.
The southeast quadrant of the NW 6th Street and 23rd Boulevard
intersection presently has substantial apartment development. It is
recommended that this development be encouraged because of surrounding
non-residential land use on three of four sides.
The southwest quadrant should remain basically single family. The
existing commercial on the southwest corner should be buffered from sin-
gle family by the recommended office and apartment uses as shown.
10. NW 6th Street - 12th Avenue to 19th Lane
This commercial development has some limited community serving business
with auto - oriented and local convenience stores as major drawing points. There
is also a supermarket near the intersection of NW 6th Street on 16th Avenue. This
intersection is surrounded by a mixture of single family and apartment dwallings.
The plan shows a "stepping down" of intensity of uses away from the inter-
section. This practice not only protects the intersection from needless congestion
and future capital expenditure for improvements but serves as a buffer to exist-
ing single family residences fronting on NW 6th Street and NW 16th Avenue.
The commercial activities in the northwest quadrant of NW 16th Avenue at
6th Street are buffered from single family by low density apartments. A mix-
ture of single family - duplex development is recommended as shown because
of the existing development and because of the number of vacant parcels
on which new single family development is unlikely. A buffer of offices are
recommended on the west side of 6th Street north of the commercial at 16th Ave-
nue to provide a "stepping down" in intensity away from the intersection.
A large medium density apartment development exists north and east of this
intersection, filling in a area between NW 6th Street and the elementary school.
It is recommended that the remaining parcels in this area are developed in a simi-
The limited commercial development in the southeast quadrant of this inter-
section is presently surrounded by single family dwellings. The apartment trend
in this area should be continued in the redevelopment of these areas, at least
over to the more solidly developed residential east of 2nd Street
The frontage on NW 6th Street in the southwest quadrant is partially utilized
for offices. It is recommended that the areas shown continue to develop for office
uses. The interior area of this quadrant is basically single family in character
and should be encouraged to remain as such.
11. NW 8th Avenue - NW 2nd Street to NW 6th Street
This area contains a undefinable mixture of commercial uses - neighborhood
to regional in function,. Many of the businesses are poorly buffered from surround-
ing residential areas contributing to residential blight. The traffic carrying capa-
city of NW 8th Avenue has been severely limited by uncontrolled access in this
area. Active planning for the widening of 8th Avenue is underway.
It is recommended that every effort be made to improve traffic and off-
street parking in conjunction with the widening of 8th Avenue between Main
Street and NW 6th Street.
The large area recommended for wholesaling is presently partially devel-
oped as such. It is felt that a continuation and expansion of these uses is
desirable to serve the needs of the Gainesville Shopping Center and abutting
Central Business District. The continuation of this trend would also tend to
eliminate further retail expansion in the area/helping to insure the economic
stability of both the Gainesville Shopping Center and the Central Business
Redevelopment will be necessary because of the blighted conditions south
of the 8th Avenue frontage. A stepping down of intensity from commercial on
the north side of 8th Avenue to office or multiple family along the south side
of 8th Avenue is recommended as a buffer to the lower density residential areas
to the south when such redevelopment occurs. The Gainesville Police Depart-
ment will utilize the triangular area between the railroad and NW 6th Street.
Low density apartments are recommended as a buffer between the proposed
warehousing district on the north side of NW 10th Avenue and the single family
areas to the north and west. A "stepping down" from commercial uses on the
northeast corner of NW 6th Street and 8th Avenue to offices and/or low density
apartments is also proposed.
North Main Street - 16th Avenue to 23rd Boulevard
Substantial commercial development has occurred at the 16th Avenue and
23rd Boulevard intersections with North Main Street. Most of this development
has been of a regional - serving narjre: auto sales and services, an office,
etc., although local convenience centers exist near the corners, onboth 16th
Avenue and 23rd Boulevard .
The predominant trend in the intervening area on Main Street from a point
south of 16th Avenue north to 23rd Boulevard has been toward auto sales and
services. These large land users require f2wer ingress and egress points onto
major streets than many other uses. It is recommended that auto uses continue
to locate in this area to provide a concentration or grouping of similar and
compatible uses, a principle stated previously. Development as such would make
comparison shopping for automobiles much less difficult, while residents would
more readily associate auto sales and services with this area.
While not specifically Main Street frontage, the extension of NE 2nd
Street is expected to stimulate wholesaling and warehousing developments in
the area immediately east of the Main Street frontage. A wide dedicated
buffer strip has been provided between the single family area abutting on the
east and this wholesaling - warehousing area.
The recommended stepping down of intensities along 16th and 23rd Avenues
away from Main Street is necessary to preserve the traffic handling capacities
of these two intersections, while insuring against the possible continuation of
strip commercial uses into the surrounding residential areas. On 16th Avenue the
Northeast Park and the church and school provide logical easterly limits to com-
mercial expansion along this thoroughfare. The Sidney Lanier Elementary School
and the petroleum dealership on 16th Avenue west of Main Street provide logical
barriers to commercial uses and buffers to adjacent residential uses.
On the south side frontage of 23rd Avenue,- offices are recommended to
provide a buffer east of Main Street between the commercial uses on Main
Street and the residential development to the east. A similar buffer should
also be provided on the north side. On the west side of MainSfcieet, the
commercial development adjoins an existing and proposed industrial district.
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NW 23RD BLVD
13. North Main Street - 7th Avenue to 16th Avenue
This area, together with the Gainesville Shopping Center, functions
primarily as a sub-regional commercial district. In addition it provides a
wide range of local convenience goods and services. The strip area north
and east of the Gainesville Shopping Center is a continuation of the auto
sales and service trend north on Main Street. Considerable traffic con-
gestion exists due to numerous access points onto Main Street in this area.
It is recommended that there be no further intensification of com-
mercial activities because of the close proximity of the Central Business
District. The single family area immediately northwest of the Gainesville
Shopping Center should remain as such. No inroads of apartments have
occurred here, but low density apartments are recommended as a buffer
between the wholesaling and single family area.
Low density apartments are recommended east of North Main Street
as a buffer between the commercial frontage and single family area to
the east. The realignment of NE 2nd Street and the existing Northeast
Park will provide for a logical termination of commercial uses along NE
The high rise apartment building for the elderly, together with the
recommended low density apartments abutting on the north, will provide a
buffer between the existing commercial and the single family residential
area to the east. Wholesaling/warehousing uses are recommended west of
Main between 8th and 10th Avenues except for the development commer-
cial along the frontage at these intersections. This would be a continuation
of the trend already established in this and the adjoining area to the west,
which was discussed earlier.
14. Waldo Road - NE 13th Avenue to NE 23rd Boulevard
This area has a conglomeration of unrelated commercial activities ranging
from local convenience to regional services. Improvements to Waldo Road
and NE 23rd Boulevard are presently underway. The widening of Waldo Road
has necessitated the acquisition of much marginal frontage and has provided
the opportunity for the orderly redevelopment of the frontage.
It is recommended that commercial development be limited to Waldo
Road at the 16th Avenue and 23rd Boulevard intersections, and that the
area fronting on Waldo Road between 16th Avenue and 23rd Boulevard be
developed as low density apartments as shown. This would prevent commercial
uses from developing with their rear fronting the existing apartment uses,
while providing a stepping down of intensities from the intersections. The
dwellings should "back lot" on Waldo Road, fronting existing and proposed
apartments and single family on NE 17th Way.
In the event that the mobile home park on 23rd Boulevard is "phased
out", it is recommended that this area be used for a continuation of ware-
housing because the irregularly shaped mobile home park is presently out
of context with the existing and proposed land uses for this area,, The scattered
commercial along 23rd Boulevard west of Waldo Road should be eliminated.
Studies have shown that most industrial firms do not benefit by the close proxi-
mity of high traffic volume commercial enterprises and vice versa.
The area directly north of Citizen's Field on Waldo Road should continue
as a mobile home park with light industry and/or warehousing, as shown,
north of the park. The public and semi-public uses provide a buffer to the
mobile home park to the south. A low density multi-family buffer is recom-
mended on the south side of 16th Avenue between the commercial uses and the
existing single family residential farther west on 16th Avenue.
. NE 8th Avenue - East of Waldo Road
This area contains a newly completed, planned local convenience center
plus several scattered, marginal commercial outlets. Many of the dwellings in
this area are dilapidated while one large church - sponsored, low-rent housing
complex has recently been constructed.
It is recommended that all scattered commercial uses east of NE 17th
Terrace be phased out. The commercial uses in this area are dilapidated and
incompatible with surrounding residential uses. The remaining commercial
frontage should be bolstered by the addition of off- street parking as shown
in the plan. The existing warehousing and light industry north along the
railroad, some of which is relatively new, provides a basis for a continuation
of this usage.
Every effort should be made to redevelop the areas north and south of
NE 8th Avenue for residential purposes. The large area between NE 10th
Avenue and the Sunland Training Center is presently being subdivided for
new single family use.
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EAST UNIVERSITY AVENUE
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16. East University Avenue Near Waldo Road
This commercial area contains several local convenience goods and service
outlets, but also caters to a larger regional market in many instances. The
surrounding residential area is marginal and has been selected as a potential
target area for a Federally assisted Concentrated Code Enforcement Program.
There is a considerable amount of vacant land in this area. It is recommended
that some of this land be used for off-street parking. The recommended closing of
SE 12th and 14th Streets on the southside of University Avenue will provide additional
room for parking and commercial redevelopment in this area.
The possible relocation of the railroad from West 6th Street to the Waldo Road
area may require additional freight terminal space in this area. It is recommended
that such expansion, if needed, be localized in the triangular area on the north-
east corner of the intersection of Waldo Road and University Avenue. The commer-
cial development at the intersection of South Waldo Road and SE 4th Avenue should
be buffered from the existing surrounding single family areas by low density apart-
Hawthorne Road - University Avenue to SE 24th Street
This commercial area contains scattered commercial uses ranging from
local convenience outlets to regional businesses. Many of the businesses are
of a non-center character. There are tentative plans for improving this thor-
It is of paramount importance to existing and future commercial devel-
opment to provide for good paved off-street parking areas which are well
landscaped. It is recommended that there be some relief in the intensity
of land use and traffic movements along Hawthorne Road so that the street
can function as a thoroughfare carrying "through" traffic.
The existing commercial uses on the south side of Hawthorne Road near
SE 3rd Avenue should be buffered from single family uses by low density multi-
ple family uses. It is also recommended that the frontage east of the nursery
be used for apartments to provide relief from the higher intensity commercial
uses on either side and to allow for better traffic movements in this area.
The future development of the north side of Hawthorne Road will be
shaped by the two large existing land users: the School Board and the drive-
in theater. It is recommended that the frontage west of the school property be
used for offices and low traffic generating commercial in order to allow the
intersections of Hawthorne Road and University Avenue and 15th Street to
The frontage immediately east of the school property is recommended for
office use. Low density multiple family is recommended on the frontage be-
tween the drive-in theater and the office frontage next to the school property.
This is similar and compatible to the uses recommended across the street. Sin-
gle family uses, already the predominant use away from the frontages on Haw-
thorne Road, should be encouraged through sound street and utility develop-
Planned Shopping Centers
During the rapidly growing past decade, shopping centers have located some-
what prematurely and off-center to their market areas. Several large centers have
grouped around two or three major intersections, causing serious traffic problems
resulting in increased taxpayer outlays for community facilities improvements in
and around these areas.
Several new shopping centers have been developed with a seemingly indif-
ferent attitude toward proper landscaping and buffering from adjacent land uses.
Large expanses of off-street parking have been left totally open to the public
eye. There has been a lack of pedestrian - oriented open space and amenities.
Most existing planned centers have been designed with the stores in a linear
orientation. Shops are continuous along several hundred feet of sidewalks, making
comparison shopping difficult. Auto transportation within the center for compari-
son shopping is a common, however unsafe, occurrence.
The incorporation of the following recommendations for the development of
future shopping centers would do much to encourage the type of healthy compari-
son shopping centers that Gainesville will require to keep the City young and
New Shopping Center Justification Through a Market Analysis
Future development of new shopping centers in the Gainesville Urban Area
should be based upon proof that the need and demand for it exists. The deter-
mination of a proposed shopping center's likely success or failure and its initial
and ultimate size is a necessity to insure the investment of the owner and future
tenants. The purpose of the market analysis is two-fold:
1 . To test the market area of the proposed shopping center to determine
whether a center could be justified now; and
2. If justified, to size the center in terms of square footage, land area,
type and size of stores.
The market analysis requires the following steps:
1 . Determination of the trade area of the proposed shopping center;
2. Determination of the number of families now living in the trade area
and those estimated to be added to the area over an established period
3. Determination of the income of the families living in the trade area;
4. Total family income for the trade area must be reduced to expendable
income for shopping center-type goods and services;
5. The trade area must then be analyzed in terms of competition; and
6. The proposed center must be analyzed in terms of type an d size of
stores and volume of business.
The market analysis is a necessary pre-requisite for shopping center justification
because a new center cannot create new buying power. It can only attract cus-
tomers from existing centers and districts and/or capture the increase in shopping
center-type expenditures through population growth in its market area.
Time Limit on Site Plan Approval
Presently, site plan approval of a proposed shopping center is effective for
an indefinite length of time. The ownership of the land and the architectural
style may change several times over a period of years before the center is actu-
ally built. Ordinance changes do not retroactively affect past site plan approval
requirements. For example, a site plan approved ten years ago requiring a
parking to building ratio of 2:1 cannot be compelled to meet the existing ratio
of 3:1 . Other changes in technology often render past site plan requirements
outdated or inadequate.
A reasonable time limit for shopping center site plan implementation should
be set. This specification would not only insure the contemporary adequacy of
the development and its ultimate success and longevity, but it would likely lessen
the chance of over-speculation in areas already adequately served commercially.
The site plan time limit together with market analysis requirements will tend
to stem the tide of over-speculation and over competition, resulting in unneces-
sary groupings of individual shopping centers and commercial districts in a
given trade area.
Off- Street Parking and Landscaping
The adoption of a minimum off-street parking landscape ordinance would
do much to enhance and preserve existing and future commercial developments.
The City Plan Board is presently working to adopt such an ordinance.
Market Analysis for Other Commercial Use Groups
The market analysis field has been extended to land uses other than shopping
centers. The market analyst's work may involve the study of a complete range
of uses including the location and justification of such varied uses as drive - in
theatres, gas stations, auto dealer, and lumber yards. The use of market analyses
is also becoming more and more prevalent bacause investment companies require
that a market analysis be made to justify their investment of risk capital .
Even though the requirement of a market analysis may be limited to shopping
centers initially, extreme care should be used in evaluating requests for zoning of
other use groups. As soon as practical, the requirements should be extended to
all commercial use groups. In the meantime, applicants for zoning should have
sufficient evidence of a need for the development of the particular use applied
The market analyst should work closely with the planning staff to insure the
proper correlation of the market area of proposed centers and districts with the
market areas of existing shopping centers and districts. If a proper correlation
is not achieved, unnecessary displacement of existing or proposed commercial
uses may result.
Existing Planned Shopping Centers
The following illustration shows all existing planned shopping centers. Each
center has a number corresponding to the following text material pertaining to each
planned shopping center.
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Local Convenience Centers
1. NW 1 6th Avenue at Millhopper Road
This development is presently a local convenience center with a convenience
grocery store as its major tenant. It is located in a large vacant parcel of land
zoned shopping center, the remaining portion of which is presently being consi-
dered as a hospital site.
This area has many of the characteristics desirable for the location of a neigh-
borhood level shopping center. It is central to a large developing residential area,
which is not now conveniently served by such a center. It is also at the intersec-
tion of two major streets which service the residential area. At the same time, it
is far enough away for other neighborhood centers so as not to detract from their
service area. Therefore, it is recommended that in the event the hospital does not
acquire the shopping center site that it be considered for development. However,
the size is far in excess of what would be needed and alternative uses, perhaps a
buffer of low density apartments could be considered. If the hospital does develop,
consideration should be given to an alternative site in this general area.
2. State Road 26 - Newberry Road
This development is presently a planned local convenience center which is
partially vacant. A convenience grocery store is the major tenant.
It is recommended that until the vacant floor space is utilized no expansion
of the convenience functions in this area take place. There is a likelihood that
adjacent land will be developed to include offices. However, this center should
remain as a local convenience center because of its peculiar location v/ith respect
to the thoroughfares and because the existing and planned non-local centers in the
area will more than adequately serve the non-local or comparison goods need of the
people in this area of Gainesville. Presently, the center suffers from the fact that
it is not really convenient to any substantial residential development, but the de-
veloping apartment complex across the road will change this situation.
3. West University Avenue at 37th Street
This is a local convenience center containing a convenience grocery store,
personal services and offices.
This development should continue to serve a low intensity, local convenience
function because of the proximity of the larger non-local commercial developments
to the north and east and because of its limited access with respect to a complicated
intersection. The presence of adjoining residential developments is also a reason
for limiting the intensity of this center.
4. Northwest Corner of West University Avenue at 34th Street
The growth of this center has been stimulated by the development of the larger
adjoining centers. It functions basically as a local convenience center, although
some tenants draw business from a much larger market area. The center is fully de-
veloped and contains a meat store, a convenience grocery store, a restaurant, an
office, a gas station, and other tenants.
It is expected that this center will continue to serve basically a local conven-
ience function. Because of serious traffic congestion in this area, it is recommended
that ingress and egress points to off-street parking be reduced and landscaping incor-
porated to buffer parking areas. If possible, it is recommended that a buffer be de-
veloped behind this center to protect the existing residential area north of the creek.
5. SW 34th Street at SW 20th Avenue
This recently opened local center has a convenience grocery store as its major
tenant. It is strategically located to serve several mobile home parks in this area,
and is buffered with offices on three sides.
It is recommended that this center remain a local convenience center with some
possible expansion of personal services in the future, as the need arises. However,
care should be taken i hot this renter not become the stimulus for strip commercial
in this area .
6. SW 34th Street at Archer R ood
The commercial development at this location presently serves a local conven-
ience function with non-local businesses across t he street. There is vacant commer-
cially zoned land across the street frcm the existing commercial development.
This is a strategic intersection in the southwestern quadrant of the Urbnn Area.
The surrounding area is rapidly developing in mobile homes and apartments. A
neighborhood center with a supermarket could evolve near the existinn local con-
venience function as this area develops. This area is reasonable for ihe location of
such a center, but care should bo taken thnt it not expand beyond a neighboihoocl
center because of the inadequacy of existing streets and its close proximity to the
7. NW 34th Street, Extended
This development is a local convenience center. There is a vast amount of
adjacent land commercially zoned for possible future expansion.
It is recommended that the local convenience center gradually evolve into a
neighborhood center with a supermarket as the major tenant if sufficient residential
development continues in this area. No larger center than a neighborhood is ad-
vised, because it would not be centrally located to a larger service area, nor on
a adequate street network.
8. NW 13th Street Near 41st Avenue
This is a local convenience center serving a limited residential area. The
surrounding land is mostly developed.
It Is recommended that this center remain a local convenience function in keeping
with the general role of this commercial a»-ea as discussed in the 'strip commercial
maps. Adequate landscaping is a recommended step for ihe improvement of its
9 & 10. NW 13th Street at 16th Avenue
These centers are basically local convenience in nature even though they are
located in a mixed commercial area. The center on the southwest corner is very
complete and contains several tenants which serve a large market area. The center
located on the northeast corner serves basically local convenience functions.
These centers should be limited to local convenience sizes in order to lessen
traffic congestion at this intersection as well as protect surrounding residential
areas (see discussion in strip map number 3).
11 & 12. NW 13th Street at 5th Avenue
These small centers contain convenience grocery stores and limited service
uses. They serve basically the University - oriented population and the high den-
sity residential areas to the east and west.
No further retail expansion is recommended because these centers are located
on a secondary street and expansion would result in a further intrusion into a resi-
dential area. These centers will continue to serve a limited residential area.
13. West University Avenue at 15th Street (Caroline Plaza)
This center serves a local convenience function to the University - oriented
population. Off-street parking is provided but much of the business is of the
walk in type. The center contains a non-prescription c*rug store, a laundromat,
a barber shop and other services.
This development should continue as a local convenience center with particular
emphasis upon pedestrian traffic from the University. Thought should be given to
providing sufficient off-street parking as needed. Existing parking is inadequate
both as to number of spaces and more particularly as to design or layout. Turning
movements from University Avenue may have to be restricted in the future as they
now sometimes present a serious traffic problem.
14 & 15. SW 13th Street Near 16th Avenue
These are local convenience centers with a limited number of tenants in an
area surrounded by predominantly non-local commercial uses. These centers serve
mainly the high density student - oriented apartments nearby.
These centers should remain local convenience in nature because of the al-
ready congested condition of the area near this intersection and to continue to
serve this particular need of the nearby apartment residents.
16. SW 13th Street Near Williston Road
This development is a limited local convenience center with some reliance
upon highway -oriented trade.
Although there presently isn't enough residential development to support a
shopping center, it is recommended that when sufficient residential development
occurs in surrounding areas, there will be a need for either a neighborhood or
community center with access to this intersection.
17. NW 6th Street Near 40th Avenue
This development is presently a local convenience center with a convenience
grocery store as its major tenant, but includes some non-local uses.
There is room for possible expansion if needed to serve the local needs of the
area. The general appearance of the center should be improved through proper
landscaping and clean-up of scattered debris and future uses should be limited to
local convenience uses.
18. SW 4th Avenue Near 3rd Street
This is a local convenience center, serving a business, medical, and high den-
sity single family residential area.
It is recommended that this center remain local convenience in character. Ex-
pansion should be limited to personal service outlets or other low intensity commercial
because the area is basically office and residential in character. It is not located
on a major thoroughfare.
19. 23rd Boulevard at North Main Street
This is a local convenience center with regional auto - oriented sales nearby.
This center should remain a local convenience center. The addition of more re-
tail sales near this intersection would jeopardize its traffic carrying capacity as well
as lead to the spread of commercial down a basically residential thoroughfare. Future
improvements made to the center should include limiting access and improving land-
scaping around the parking area. (See strip map 12)
20. 16th Avenue East of North Main Street
This is a local convenience center formed by two small clusters of stores. There
are several non-local commercial outlets in the area with some in the center itself.
It is recommended that this center continue to function as a local conven-
ience center because any intensification by changeovers to more non-local serving uses
would only add to the congestion in the area, as well as change the function of the
21. 16th Avenue at South Main Street
This is a local convenience center with a pizza rortaurant adjacent to it. The
businesses cater primarily to University students livinq in l!.o surrounding cpartments.
Another convenience grocery and take out restaurant has opened across the slice; •.
Future expansion at this location should be encouraged to develop as a unified
shopping center with one common area of off-street parking. It is anticipated that
other convenience and personal service outlets will Iceaie here, but the general
character of this center should remain local, convenience in nature, because a con-
centration of more intense cc.mnorc ial user will undoubtably create serious congestion
on 16th Avenue and would adversely effect the aparii.iciu development in ihe area.
22. NE 8th Avenue at 15th Terrace
This is a newly constructed limited, local convenience center with a laundry
and some personal services. Off-street parking is provided in contrast to nearby
It is recommended that this center remain local convenience in nature because
of abutting residential uses and its location with respect to the existing thoroughfares.
If the demand arises, this center could expand to provide more convenience goods and
23. East University Avenue at 14th Street
This is a local convenience center oriented predominantly to auto - oriented
customers. There are several other uses catering to a larger market area both in the
center and on adjacent frontages. There is a striking lack of landscaping at this
This center should remain local convenience in nature because of its location
with respect to a complicated intersection causing hazardious ingress and egress
East University Avenue at 24th Street
This local convenience center has recently opened. It contains a small grocery
It is recommended that this center remain a local convenience center because
of its lack of access from four directions and because of possible detrimential effects
upon surrounding residential developments. The future land use plan proposes a
neighborhood center on East University to serve this need for the developing resi-
dential of the area.
East University Avenue at 39th Street
This is a local convenience center with some unoccupied floor space.
It is recommended that this center remain local convenience in nature.
Utilization of the vacant floor space should be encouraged before additional struc-
tures are added. Further residential development to create a better market will
be necessary before additional commercial can be justified.
Hawthorne Road at SE 23rd Street
This is a local convenience center with a limited number of outlets.
This center should remain local convenience in nature because of the lack of
available adjacent land, the limited market, and the lack of proper vehicular ac-
cess required for a larger center.
27. West University Avenue at 34th Street (West Side)
Th is is a neighborhood center with a supermarket and drug store as its major ten-
ants. It also contains a womens clothing store, take-out food store, travel agency,
and a florist. Some comparison shopping is done between this center and Westgate
Center, creating some cross traffic and congestion. Together, these two centers con-
tain all the stores generally found in a community center. There is a new office park
nearby which is developing in accordance with the adopted plan for this area, and there i
apartment complex across the street.
Because there is additional vacant land in this site and because of its location
on major thoroughfares, there will probably be pressures placed on the center to de-
velop in non-local uses. Since there is another planned non-local center nearby and
because of the heavy traffic congestion apparent in the area, it is recommended that
the remaining vacant land be developed by local commercial ucos which will cater
to the adjacent apartment developments.
28. North Main Street at 10th Avenue ( SE Corner)
This is a neighborhood center with several "hybrid" retail outlets, such as a
restaurant, and an office and other shops. The outward appearance of this center
is marginal. Landscaping could be used to substantially improve the appearance.
The demand for future expansion on this site should be limited to local conven-
ience outlets to serve the new low rent housing for the elderly and other nearby high
density residential areas. The non-local commercial needs for the area are adequately
served by the nearby community center and the Central Business District.
29. NE 16th Avenue at 12th Street(Northgate)
This is a neighborhood center with adequate off-street parking and adjacent land
for future expansion. This center serves primarily northeast Gainesville. It is well
located with respect to service area, although not so well with respect to the street
It is important that any future commercial development be part of the center
versus unplanned commercial sprawl which would destroy the residential character
of the surrounding area. It is recommended that this center remain a neighborhood
center because of its location with respect to the street network and its setting in a
well-established homogeneous residential area. Existing and future development
should be well buffered by trees, shrubs, etc. to preserve the sense of unity and
function of this development.
30. West University Avenue at 34th Street (Wes tgate Center)
This is currently a small community center with a supermarket, restaurant,
variety store, and other tenants. The site is fully developed.
This center should remain a community center with any nearby expansion
limited to offices or other low intensity use in an effort to preserve the traffic
carrying capacity of this intersection.
31. NW 13th Street at 23rd Boulevard (Field's Plaza )
This center functions as a community center with a limited number of stores.
It contains two "hybrid" discount retail outlets, plus a theatre. Much of this
center's business is generated by the proximity of the Gainesville Mall across the
street and vice versa.
It is expected that no additional commercial expansion in this center will be
needed, but there is vacant land available south of the theatre. Attention should
be focused toward improving the landscaping in and around the parking areas and
buffering any future development west of the center.
32. West University Av enue at 6th Street (Central Plaza)
This is a community center with a limited number of stores. The major tenants
are a supermarket and a variety store. This center serves much of the older, more
intensely developed core oron o r Gainesville.
The existing site is fully developed, ond the possibility of future expansion
is doubtful . It is likely that fl:e existing railroad rmcks will eventually I 9 re-
moved and widening of 6th Street will ensue. This eventuality would enhance
this center's accessibility end would lessen several traffic hazards.
33. North Main Street at lOHi Avenue (Gainesville Shannina, Center)
This is a large community shopping center with a supermarket and junior de-
partment store as major tenants, however, some of the stores ere presently vacant.
There is also a rather complete line of comparison shopping stores. There is, distinct
absence of landscaping in and around this center.
This center is completely developed. Parking areas should be adequately land-
scaped and natural physical obstacles should be introduced to define lanes of move-
ment within the vast open parking area.
34. NW 13th Street at 23rd Boulevard (Gainesville Mal l)
This is a major shopping center which serves all of Alachua County and portions
of surrounding counties. Intensive commercial development exists on two of the
other three corners abutting the adjacent intersection.
This site is completely developed at present, however, higher intensity develop-
ment may be possible. Particular attention should be given to improving the land-
scaping in and around the parking areas. In addition, another center is p'anned across
the street which will place an added burden of traffic and cross traffic between the
centers in this area. No further commercial expansion to the west should be allowed
and buffering should be provided as needed.
The Proposed Commercial Land Use Plan - A Summary of Recommendations
The proposed Commercial Land Use Plan as presented is both specific and
general in nature. It is specific in outlining "strip commercial" areas and probable
future shopping center sites in the older more developed areas of Gainesville, Much
of the commercial zoning and market potential necessary for future implementation
of this portion of the plan presently exists in these areas. However, in outlying
areas which are presently sparsely developed and are expected to remain basically
the same at least until 1980, the symbols indicate only general locations for shopping
centers needed to adequately serve the population when these areas are developed.
Strip Commercial Areas
The presence of Strip Commercial development in cities is a result ofthe urbani-
zation process and often reflects the need in prior years for pedestrian orienred
commercial areas near residential sections. Since the rapid rise in automobile usage
and the resultant urban sprawl these strip developments have tended to follow the
major arteries and serve as locations for auto oriented activities. Strip locations will
continue to appeal to uses catering to impulse shopping from passerby traffic, to uses that
cannot afford center locations and to those desiring to locate near the homes of customers.
In emphasis, although present strip commercial developments have several
functional, design, and aesthetic drawbacks, the incorporation of the following
policies should lessen the negative impact strip commercial development often has
upon the community.
1. Encourage the grouping of similar and compatible uses in specific areas
to enhance comparison shopping and convenience. The grouping of automobile
sales and service along North Main Street is an example.
2. Encouragement of a service drive for access to "strip" businesses to lessen
direct access points onto major thoroughfares via curb cuts.
3. Encourage the utilization of vacant parcels of land in existing commercial
areas in deference to the needless opening up of new areas to strip commercial.
4. Encouragement of more restrictive sign controls not only in strip areas but also
in shopping centers.
Seventeen major strip areas have previously been reviewed and existing and
proposed land uses for each area were depicted. The proposed land use plan for each
area is a result of "rounding off" these areas with commercial development and buffering
stepping down and cutting back. The total additional commercial acreage as proposed in
these areas is about 163 acres . Examination of Table 6 on page 15 indicates that there
should be a demand for an additional 83 acres in strip commercial areas by iy80. The
figure of 83 acres was based on the assumption that all additional automotive and mis-
cellaneous (lumber building material, farm equipment, commercial recreation, and ^
hotels and motels) commercial businesses would locate in strip areas. In addition, it
was felt that approximately 70 percent of eating and drinking establishments and 50 per-
cent of furniture and appliance stores would continue to locate in these areas. Because
of the lack of standards for dollar sales per square foot for commercial reaction businesses
and hotels and motels, and because of the uncertainties involved in projecting the effects
of tourism locally, no projections of land use needs for these business e s were made or indicated
in Table 6 on page 15 . \f is therefore believed that the projection of additional strip
commercial land needs by 1980 is slightly conservative.
In addition to the major strip commercial areas examined previously, there are
approximately 250 acres of commercial land use provided at the three existing inter-
changes with 1-75 and the proposed interchange at Archer Road. The three interchanges
presently have approximately 525 acres of commercial zoning abutting them and strung
out along the major thoroughfares away from the interchanges. It is recommended that
the approximate 1000 feet of depth of zoning along the thoroughfares be cut back to
about 600 feet. It is also recommended that the amount of commercial frontage along
the thoroughfares be cut back to alleviate much of the potential for strip commercial de-
velopments which create severe circulation problems.
Thus, the Plan provides for roughly twice as much land (163 acres) for commercial
areas than is needed by 1980 (83 acres). In addition approximately 250 acres of commer-
cial land use has been provided at the 1-75 interchanges. An overall sound development
policy would dictate that no additional new areas be "opened up" to strip commercial
development until the older areas are fully utilized.
As described previously, a properly designed shopping center can be an attractive
and convenient facility to serve a neighborhood. Several of the policies for the future
development of strip commercial areas as stated above are characteristic of shopping cen-
ter developments. That is, there is a grouping of similar uses providing convenient com-
parison shopping and limited ingress and egress points onto major thoroughfares.
As is the case with many of the strip commercial areas, several of the potential
sites for shopping centers by 1980 have already been appropriately zoned. Shaded sym-
bols have thus been shown on these proposed specific areas. Those sites for new shopping
centers are based primarily upon past and present growth trends in apartments, single
family residences, and mobile homes which stimulate new commercial growth. Proposed
general locations for shopping centers after 1980 are depicted by unshaded symbols.
Shopping Centers Needed by 1980
No previous mention has been made of a phenomenon now occurring across the
nation. This is the rapid spread of the various "local convenience" grocery stores
* Planning Division estimate
which are generally open from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m., seven days a week. There are
presently about forty-five of these convenience grocery stores in the Gainesville
Urban Area. Review of national statistics and an interview with the regional office
of a convenience grocery store chain has led to the belief ihat these stores now ac-
count for approximately 17 percent of food sales in the Urban Area or about 5„6
million dollars annually in 1967 (see Table 4 on page 12 ) |t ; s believed that the
importance of these convenience stores will continue during the planning period.
It is likely that approximately 30 additional convenience stores will be supported
by their share of the expected annual increase in dollars available for food by 1980.
Existing stores have located either by themselves or in many instances have satellite
tenants such as a laundromat or liquor store included to form a Local Convenience
Center. No effort has been made to locate such centers in the Preliminary Com-
mercial Land Use Plan .
The projected number of additional Neighborhood Centers needed by 1980
is based upon the expected annual increase in dollar sales for food In the Urban Area
(see Table 6 on page 15 ). It must be emphasized that these are only rough projections.
Ultimate development should be based upon demand as verified through a market analysis.
By subtracting the dollar sales increase allocated to convenience grocery stores by 1980,
supermarkets are expected to capture an additional $22, 1 10,000 annually by 1980„ This
would mean that an additional eleven (11) supermarkets could be supported by the expected
annual increase in food dollars available between now and 1980 as calculated below.
Additional food dollars available $22,110,000
Average annual dollar sales per square foot of GLA $ 96
Additional square feet of GLA: $22,110,000 = 231,500 sq.ft.
$96 / sq.ft.
Average GLA of supermarkets: » 21 ,600 sq.ft.
Projected number of new supermarkets : 23 1 , 500 sq . f t . = . .10.72 stores
21,600 sq. ft/store
At present there are twelve supermarkets in the Urban Area representing five
major supermarket chains. Nine (9) of these supermarkets are located in planned
shopping centers. It is assumed that all additional supermarkets will locate in either
planned neighborhood or community centers because the success of supermarkets is
enhanced by the close proximity of other stores. The success of supermarkets in large
regional or major centers, however, has waned because most people tend to do the majority
of their grocery shopping at either neighborhood or community centers while depending
upon more distant major centers for comparison shopping for durable goods.
The Plan indicates, using shaded symbols, proposed locations for seven (7)
additional neighborhood centers, three (3) additional community centers, and one
(1) additional major center possibly needed by the end of the planning period to
1980. It must be emphasized that these general locations are only preliminary in
that they are based upon an anticipated growth pattern during the next decade.
It is also appropriate to point out that any actual developments should follow
the locational and design criteria and meet market analysis requirements as pre-
Planned neighborhood centers should provide the basic weekly convenience
needs of the surrounding residential areas (groceries, drugs, barber shop, etc.).
As such, the following locations have been designated as potential sites for new
neighborhood centers by 1980.
1. S.W. Archer Road West of 1-75
It is recommended that a neighborhood center be located in this pre-
dominatly mobile home area when the need exists and that adequate
consideration be given to major transportation links from all four
directions rather than just clong the Archer Road. Under no cir-
cumstances should non-center businesses be introduced into this
mobile home area inflicting the aforementioned strip commercial
"deseases" upon this area.
2. S.W. Archer Road at S.W. 34th Street
When sufficient single family and residential growth occurs around
this intersection (as determined by a market analysis) it is recom-
mended that a neighborhood shopping center be designed and devel-
oped in such a way as to not overly congest f-his intersection. Simi-
larly, any strip commercial development near this intersection should
3. N.W. 43rd Street at 16 Boulevard
When sufficient community growth occurs around this intersection
it is recommended that a planned neighborhood center be developed
(see discussion in section on Planned Shopping Centers).
4. N.W. 34th Street Extended
It is recommended that when sufficient residential growth occurs in
this area, the present commercial development should be expanded
to include a supermarket and other tenants normally found in a
neighborhood center (see discussion in section on Planned Shopping
5. N.W. 39th Avenue at N.E. 15th Street
The likely residential development of the areas surrounding this inter-
section should increase the demand for commercial uses near this
intersection. It is recommended that when such a demand occurs
it be fulfilled by a neighborhood level shopping center.
6. S . E . 1 5th Street at S . E . 8th Avenue
Residential development presently surrounds this intersection. It
is recommended that a neighborhood level shopping center be
developed on the land currently zoned for a shopping center to
serve these residential areas.
7. S. E . Hawthorne Road at S. E . 43rd Street
It is recommended that when sufficient residential growth occurs
in this area to support a neighborhood center that it be developed
as such. A new junior - senior high school in this area may stimulate
enough additional residential growth to support a shopping center
during the planning period.
Planned community centers should provide for both the basic weekly convenience
needs of the population and some of the comparison needs. These centers should meet
all the design and locational requirements discussed previously. The following locations
have been designated as potential sites for new neighborhood centers by 1980.
1 . W. University Avenue at State Road 329 (W 43rd Street)
This community center is presently in the planning stages and is to be
developed in several phases. Its location so near the Westgate Shopping
Center complex may create several problems of traffic congestion unless
adequate signalization and ingress and egress movements are provided.
Under no circumstances should strip commercial activities be allowed to
develop along the West University Avenue frontages in this area.
2. N.W. 13th Street Opposite the Gainesville Mall
This community center is also currently in the planning stages. Additional
signalization on N. W. 13th Street will likely be required to handle
anticipated cross traffic between this center and the Gainesville Mall.
This center, together with the Mall and Fields Plaza, places a tremendous
potential for auto congestion and a demand for street improvements
in and around the area.
3. S.W. 13th Street at S.W. Williston Road
It is recommended that by 1980 a community center be constructed near
this intersection, but only after a thorough market analysis. Because of the
tremendous recent development ot apartment complexes and single
family dwellings in this southern area of Gainesville, it is believed
the greatest potential for shopping center development presently lies
near this general location. If, however, commercial development
occurs in the Biven's Arm area along S.W. 13th Street and^r the
major apartment and single family development trend in the South-
west Area moves farther west from the S.W. 13th Street area, two
other sites seem logical alternatives. These two sites are:
(1) Near the intersection of S.W. Williston Road and
I -75; and
(2) on the Archer Road west of 1-75.
However, only two (2) of these three (3) possible sites will ultimately
be needed sometime after 1980.
Major centers should provide a wide range of comparison goods in order to
serve a large regional trade area. In the Gainesville Urban Area such a center would
serve all of Alachua County and portions of surrounding counties. The Gainesville
Mall is the only existing planned Major Center. The Downtown Gainesville area,
although not a planned shopping center per se, functions as a major commercial
attraction. Therefore, projections for additional Major Centers are based upon the
assumption that Downtown will continue to function as a major commercial attraction.
Only one(l Additional planned major center is recommended by 1980. Because of
the existing commercial developments and the current planned development of two
(2) additional community centers, it is believed that another major center may possibly
be needed by 1980 or near the end of the planning period. The recommended location
is near the intersection of the recently improved Newberry Road and 1-75. This
location, with respect to the transportation system, will provide excellent access to
the center from all population areas in the region. This location is also distant enough
from the major existing areas of comparison shopping such that it will not detract
significantly from their trade areas. A summary of the approximate allocation of
acreage for new shopping centers by 1980 is provided below.
Additional Shopping Center by 1980
Type of Center Number of new centers Acres
Local Convenience na 30
Neighborhood 7 28
Community 3 30
Major 1 35
Total TT 723
As this table indicates 123 acres has been provided in the plan for shopping centers
by 1980. This is the amount estimated to be needed in the market analysis presented
earlier. A grand total of approximately 635 acres of commercial are recommended in
the land use plan for 1980. Again, this amount far exceeds what is expected to be used,
but is a result of adjusting to what is now zoned, "rounding off" strip areas, and providing
for tourist facilities at the freeway interchanges. It also inci udes approxirra tely 90 acres
added in the North Main Street area after the discussion of strip areas in this report was
completed, plus a few additional miscellaneous parcels not mentioned previously.
Additional Shopping Centers After 1980
All other symbols on the preliminary Commercial Land Use Plan refer to possible
shopping centers after 1980. The locations shown are not meant to be rigid or specific,
but only general indications of the need in a given area if full development is accomplished,
with no major divergences from present growth trends.
Two factors must be kept in mind in evaluating the plan in terms of these Centers.
First, the plan assumes that development of commercial in the long range future will be
on a more planned, orderly basis than today, which means primarily the growth of
shopping centers as opposed to scattered parcel development. The difference can be
significant. For example, only three existing centers were classified as neighborhood
while seven were recommended for 1980. This does not mean there is deficit in the
types of activities found in such centers now, only that the activities are now located
elsewhere. Secondly, the number of centers were derived on the basis of the total hold-
ing capacity for the Urban area as a whole and then distributed on the basis of assumed
development patterns and densities. Different directions of growth, shifts in urban den-
sities or composition of the population would of course affect the pattern of centers as shown.
In addition, the number of centers are based on a numerical ratio of persons per center,
and not on a more precise economic standard. They can only be considered as a rough
indication as a result.
Local Convenience Centers
As was described earlier, the local convenience grocery store chains and satellite
uses have made significant inroads in Gainesville and many other communities. It
is felt that these convenience commercial outlets will continue to cater to the
needs and demands of a mobile society . Therefore, the projected land needs for
these types of commercial uses after 1980 have been based upon the same growth rate as
projected for these uses before 1980. The projected increase in land use for these com-
mercial establishments between 1970 and 1980 is 30 acres. This is the period in which
the Urban Area population is projected to increase by approximately 40,000 persons.
Between 1980 and whatever year full development occurs in the Area, approximately
205,000 additional persons will be housed in the Urban Area or about five (5) times as
many more additional persons as projected to be added to the Urban Area population
during the 1970-80 decade. Assuming a continued demand for these stores approxi-
mately 150 additional acres (5 x 30 acres) will be required for these Local Conveni-
ence outlets after 1980. Again, no attempt has been made to locate these centers on
the Land Use Plan.
Within the standards for neighborhood shopping centers set forth earlier, it is ex-
pected that a neighborhood center, such as the existing Northgate shopping center, will
be supported by approximately 6,000 residents (See Table 13). The additional popu-
lation projected for the Urban Area after 1980 is approximately 205,000 persons. There-
fore, thirty-three (33) additional neighborhood centers could be built in conjunction
with the population needs after 1980, utilizing approximately 130 acres. The approxi-
mate number of these centers are shown by planning district based upon their individual
population holding capacities.
As indicated in Table 13, "Shopping Center Standards", the Community Center
requires a minimum of 5,000 families to support it. It is projected that approximately
nine (9) additional Community Centers will be required after 1980, utilizing about 90
acres. This would generally provide an average of 25,000 persons per Community Center,
which is significantly above the minimum standard stated above but more in keeping with
national average for larger cities. These centers have been shown in approximate loca-
tions to serve the anticipated commercial needs when the surrounding areas are developed
In the long range commercial development plan for the Gaire wille Urban Area,
the Downtown Area and the Gainesville Mall area must be considered as regional com-
mercial complexes. As was indicated in the previous section of commercial projections
to 1980, it is anticipated that a third regional center would best be located in the vicin-
ity of intersection of Newberry Road (SR ^26) and highway 1-75. This center is expected
to be feasible during or slightly after 1980 if urban growth continues in this northwestly
area. With a minimum support of 100,000 persons per regional center, it is expected
that three (3) large regional complexes will be all that it needed to serve the residents
of the Gainesville Urban Area. Thirty- five (35) acres were allotted for this third re-
gional center in the projection for shopping center land needs before 1980.
Additional Shopping Centers
Type of Center
Number of new centers
Roughly 1,000 acres of commercial land, in addition to that already developed,
is recommended in the plan. The amount is imprecise because the size of shopping
centers varies and the plan is generalized to a large extent. This amount will far
exceed what will likely ever be developed. In fact the trend in commercial devel-
opment has been to concentrate and economize on land usage through shopping cen-
ters, especially in areas developed in the last decade. It is likely that this trend
will predominate in the Gainesville Urban Area where the largest portion of ur-
banized development is yet to come.
1 . Alachua County, Tax Assessor, Special Computer Print Out, 1968.
2. Applied Parking Techniques, Parking Progress, Bulletin^ 121, 1968.
3. Boyd, David E., The Impact of the Office Worker on Downtown Gainesville,
Florida, a thesis presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida,
4. City of Gainesvil le, Department of Community Development, Planning Division
a. Planning Unit Study , July, 1968.
b Enrollments and Employment, University of Florida and Santa Fe Junior
College, September, 1967.
c. Population Study, January, 1968.
d. Land Use Analysis, January, 1969.
e. "Survey of Out-of-Town Shoppint", April, 1967.
f. Economic Base Study, January, 1969.
g. Downtown Gainesville, 1963.
5. National Industrial Conference Board, Expenditure Patterns of the American
Family, based on U. S. Department of Labor Statistics, 1965.
6. Sales Management, Survey of Buying Power, June, 1968
7. State of Florida, 1967 Florida Tourist Study.
8. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics for the Southern Region.
9. University of Florida, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Florida
Abstract Book, 1967.
10. University of Florida, Student Income and Expenditures, May, 1967.
11. Urban Land Institute, The Community Builders Handbook, 1968.
12. Urban Land Institute, Parking Requirements for Shopping Centers, Techinical
Bulletin, 5C, 1968.